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Marketing Lesson Note for SS2 (First Term) 2023

Marketing lesson note for SS2 First Term is now available for free. The State and Federal Ministry of Education has recommended unified lesson notes for all secondary schools in Nigeria, in other words, all private secondary schools in Nigeria must operate with the same lesson notes based on the scheme of work for Marketing.

Marketing lesson note for SS2  First Term has been provided in detail here on schoolings.org

Marketing Lesson Note for SS2 (First Term) [year] 1

For prospective school owners, teachers, and assistant teachers, Marketing lesson note is defined as a guideline that defines the contents and structure of Marketing as a subject offered at SS level. The lesson note for Marketing for SS stage maps out in clear terms, how the topics and subtopics for a particular subject, group works and practical, discussions and assessment strategies, tests, and homework ought to be structured in order to fit in perfectly, the approved academic activities for the session.

To further emphasize the importance of this document, the curriculum for Marketing spells out the complete guide on all academic subjects in theory and practical. It is used to ensure that the learning purposes, aims, and objectives of the subject meant for that class are successfully achieved.

Marketing Lesson note for SS2 carries the same aims and objectives but might be portrayed differently based on how it is written or based on how you structure your lesson note. Check how to write lesson notes as this would help make yours unique.

The SS2 Marketing lesson note provided here is in line with the current scheme of work hence, would go a long way in not just helping the teachers in carefully breaking down the subject, topics, and subtopics but also, devising more practical ways of achieving the aim and objective of the subject.

The sudden increase in the search for SS2 Marketing lesson note for First Term is expected because every term, tutors are in need of a robust lesson note that carries all topics in the curriculum as this would go a long way in preparing students for the West African Secondary Examination.

This post is quite a lengthy one as it provides in full detail, the Marketing-approved lesson note for all topics and sub-topics in Marketing as a subject offered in SS2.

Please note that Marketing lesson note for SS2 provided here for First Term is approved by the Ministry of Education based on the scheme of work.

I made it free for tutors, parents, guardians, and students who want to read ahead of what is being taught in class.

SS2 Marketing Lesson Note (First Term) 2023

SS2 Marketing First term Lesson Notes

 

Types and Functions of Distribution l

 

Types and Functions of Distribution ll

 

Types and Functions of Distribution lll

Types and Functions of Distribution IV

Types and Functions of Distribution V

Marketing SSS2 First Term Mid-Term Assessment

Transportation l

Transportation ll

Transportation lll

Transportation lV

Transportation V

Marketing SSS2 First Term Final Assessment

WEEK 1

Types and Functions of Distribution l

Performance objectives

Students should be able to:

  1. State the meaning of distribution.
  2. List the types of distribution.

Content

  1. Distribution
  2. Types of distribution.

 

Distribution

A distribution channel can be described “as an organized system of marketing institutions and their interrelationships that promote the physical flow of goods and services along with a title that confers ownership from producer to consumer or business user. It also connotes the network of organizations that creates time, place and possession utilities for consumers and business users.

Examples: movement of textbooks from publishers to bookshops, movement of agricultural products from farm to the commodity market.

Types of Distribution

The distribution could be grouped into the following;

  1. Dual Channel Distribution: This refers to the movement of products through more than one distribution channel to reach the same target consumers.

Examples are:

(a) Manufacturer—> Wholesaler—> Consumers

(b) Manufacturer—> Wholesaler—> Retailers

  1. Reverse Channel Distribution: This relates to the backward movement of goods from users to producers. This is the situation when consumers are expected to supply certain information before goods and services could be distributed. For instance, registration of car owner allows manufacturers to send a proper notification in the event of a recall.
  2. Wholesaling Intermediaries: This is a broader term whereby firms sell products primarily to retailers or to other wholesalers or business users and only in insignificant amounts to the ultimate consumer. These include agents and brokers who perform important wholesaling activities without taking title to goods which differentiates it from merchandising.
  3. Sakes Channel: This is part of the distribution which involves the buying, selling and transferring title. The participants in this marketing channel are the manufacturers, retailers, consumers and transportation company.
  4. Facilitating Channel: These include public storage firms, insurance companies, finance companies, market research firms and several other types of firms also frequently participate as facilitating organisations in various marketing channels. It is essential that both the sales and facilitating channels are usually needed to create time, place and possession utilities.

WEEK 2

Types and Functions of Distribution ll

Performance Objectives

Students should be able to:

  1. Identify the channel of distribution.
  2. State the functions of each channel of distribution.

Content

  1. Channel of distribution
  • Wholesaler
  1. Functions of wholesaler

 

Channels of Distribution

Channels of distribution connote the medium through which products pass from manufacturers to consumers.

 

Wholesaler

A wholesaler is an intermediary entity in the distribution channel that buys in bulk and sells to resellers rather than to consumers. In its simplest form, a distributor performs a similar role but often provides more complex services. Distributors and wholesalers often work together as channel partners.

 

Functions of Wholesaler

  1. Assembling:

A wholesaler buys goods in bulk from different manufacturers and keeps them at one place. He collects goods from several places much in advance of demand. He may also import goods from foreign countries.

  1. Warehousing or storage:

There is usually a large time gap between production and consumption of goods. Goods must, therefore, be stored for a considerable time.

A wholesaler stores goods in his warehouse and makes them available to retailers as and when demanded. He stabilizes the prices of the goods by adjusting the supply with the demand. He creates time utility.

  1. Dispersion:

A wholesaler distributes the assembled goods among a large number of retailers scattered at different places. He sells goods in small quantities according to the choice of retailers. This is known as ‘breaking of bulk’.

  1. Transportation:

A wholesaler arranges for the transport of goods from producers to his warehouse and from the warehouse to retailers. He carries goods in bulk thereby saving costs of transport.

Many wholesalers maintain their own trucks and tempos to carry goods far and wide quickly. Thus, a wholesaler adds place utility to the goods.

  1. Financing:

A wholesaler often provides advance money with orders to manufacturers. He purchases goods in bulk on a cash basis from them. In addition, he often sells goods on credit basis to retailers. In this way, he provides finance to both producers and retailers.

  1. Risk -bearing:

A wholesaler assumes the risk of damage to goods in transit and in storage. He also bears the risks arising from changes in demand and bad debts. He serves as the shock absorber in the distribution of goods.

  1. Grading and Packing:

Many wholesalers classify the assembled goods into different grades, pack them into small lots and put their own trademarks or brand names. In this way, they perform the functions of grading, packing and branding.

  1. Pricing:

A wholesaler anticipates demand and market conditions. He helps to determine the resale price of goods.

WEEK 3

Types and Functions of Distribution lll

Performance objectives

Students should be able to:

  1. Identify the channel of distribution
  2. State the functions of the retailer as a channel of distribution.

Content

  1. Channel of distribution- retailer
  2. Functions of a retailer.

 

Retailer

A retailer, or merchant, is an entity that sells goods such as clothing, groceries, or cars directly to consumers through various distribution channels with the goal of earning a profit. … In general, retailers don’t manufacture the goods they sell.

Functions of Retailer

The functions of the retailer can be explained as follows:

  1. Connecting Link:

A retailer is a connecting link between the wholesaler and consumer. He purchases goods from the wholesaler and sells the same to the end consumer.

  1. Marketing Function:

Whenever the wholesaler is not capable of carrying out marketing functions transportation and warehousing of goods, the retailer takes over the responsibility. The retailer also helps in advertising the goods and services effectively as he is in direct contact with the consumers.

iii. Market Information:

A retailer provides the following information to the wholesaler:

  1. Tastes and preferences of consumers,
  2. Current market trend for a particular product and
  3. Demand for competitors’product.

This helps the wholesaler in understanding the products that are currently in demand. A retailer provides the consumers with detailed information regarding the product attributes, price, warranty etc. enabling them to make an informed decision regarding the purchase.

  1. Helps Distribution:

In the case of perishable goods like fruits, vegetables, poultry or dairy products, it is necessary that the goods reach the end consumers in time. This is because they have a short shelf life. Since retailers are in direct contact with a large number of consumers, they help in the faster distribution of goods.

  1. Creates Demand:

A retailer tries to draw consumers’ attention towards the newly launched goods through the medium of window display and banner advertisements. The retailer is also able to convince the customers into buying a certain product due to personal relations he has with them. This helps in creating demand for the products.

  1. Local Convenience:
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Retailers are usually located in residential areas and remain operational throughout the day. The customers have the flexibility of purchasing goods from such nearby retailers as per their convenience. They do not have to travel long distances to reach the wholesaler or the producer. Also, the manufacturer is assured that his goods are reaching the place of consumption on a timely basis.

WEEK 4

Types and Functions of Distribution IV

Performance Objectives

Students should be able to:

  1. Explain the term consumer in the channel of distribution.
  2. State the functions of a consumer

Content

  1. Consumer
  2. Functions of the consumer.

Consumer

A consumer is a person or a group who intends to order, orders, or uses purchased goods, products, or services primarily for personal, social, family, household and similar needs, not directly related to entrepreneurial or business activities.

Functions of Consumer

  1. A consumer is the one that buys goods for consumption and not for resale or commercial purpose.
  2. The consumer is an individual who pays some amount of money for the thing required to consume goods and services.
  3. Consumers play a vital role in developing the economic system of a nation.
  4. With consumer demand, producers have motivations to produce and to sell.
  5. The consumer also forms part of the chain of distribution.

WEEK 5

Types and Functions of Distribution V

Performance Objectives

Students should be able to:

Explain the factors that influence the choice of distribution channel

Content

Choice of Distribution Channels

 

Choice of distribution channels

The choice of channels depends on various factors. Usually, manufacturers consider which distribution channel would be objective and efficient.

The selected channels must have the lowest cost with a maximum overall profit. It should also be remembered that there is no single channel of distribution that will always result in optimum profit. The integrated marketing concept has prompted many manufacturers to employ several kinds of channels.

Choice of distribution channels can be influenced by the following criteria or considerations:

  1. Market Variables: This relates to where the majority or bulk of the consumers has related i.e nearness to consumer location, patterns of consumer buying behavioural.
  2. Product Variables: This relates to weight, unit, value, technicality, and perishability of a product, nature of product e.g. agricultural products, petroleum products, machinery and plants.
  3. Company Variables: This relates to the financial capacity of manufacturers, size, expertise and desire for managerial control.
  4. Intermediary Variables: This relates to cost, availability and kind of services provided.
  5. Behavioural Variables: This relates to collective bargaining and behavioural pattern of consumer.
  6. External Environmental Variables: This relates to government policy/regulations/policies competition, technological innovation, prevalent economic conditions, political and cultural settings etc.

Test: Marketing SSS2 First Term Mid-Term Assessment

Top of Form

  1. _________ relates to backward movement of goods from users to producers?

 

sakes channel

reverse channel distribution

facilitating channel

dual-channel distribution

  1. ___________ refers to the movement of products through more than one distribution channel to reach the same target consumers?

 

sakes channel

reverse channel distribution

facilitating channel

dual-channel distribution

  1. _________ is part of the distribution which involves the buying, selling and transferring the title?

 

sakes channel

reverse channel distribution

facilitating channel

dual channel distribution

  1. __________ include public storage firms, insurance companies, finance companies, market research firms and several other types of firms also frequently participate as facilitating organisations in various marketing channels?

 

sakes channel

reverse channel distribution

facilitating channel

dual-channel distribution

  1. . ___________ can be described “as an organized system of marketing institutions and their interrelationships that promote the physical flow of goods and services along with title that confers ownership from producer to consumer or business user?

 

distribution

reverse channel distribution

facilitating channel

dual-channel distribution

  1. Does a wholesaler anticipate demand and market conditions?

 

True

False

  1. . Grading and Packaging is one of the functions performed by Wholesaler?

 

True

False

  1. ___________ is an intermediary entity in the distribution channel that buys in bulk and sells to resellers rather than to consumers?

 

retailer

channel of distribution

wholesaler

grading and packaging

  1. . __________ connotes the medium through which products pass from manufacturers to consumers?

 

warehouse

channel of distribution

wholesaler

grading and packaging

  1. Does a wholesaler never assume the risk of damage to goods in transit and in storage?

 

True

False

  1. A retailer is a connecting link between the

 

manufacturer and consumer

merchant and wholesaler

wholesaler and consumer

consumer and buyer

  1. . Retailers are usually located in residential areas and remain operational?

 

True

False

  1. A retailer provides the following information to the wholesaler except?

 

Tastes and preferences of consumers,

Current market trend for a particular product and

Demand for competitors’ product.

The lack of money of the consumers

  1. A retailer tries to draw consumers’ attention towards the newly launched goods through the medium of window display and banner advertisements?

 

True

False

  1. Does a retailer never create demand?

 

True

False

  1. . Consumers don’t use purchased good, instead, they keep it?

 

Yes

No

  1. With consumer demand, producers have motivations to produce and to sell?

 

True

False

  1. A consumer is the one that buys good for consumption and not for resale or commercial purpose?

 

True

False

  1. The consumer does not form part of the chain of distribution?

 

True

False

False

  1. Do consumers play a vital role in developing the economic system of a nation?

 

True

False

  1. ________ relates to where the majority or bulk of the consumers is related i.e nearness to consumer location, patterns of consumer buying behavioural?

 

behavioural variables

company variables

product variables

market variables

  1. __________ relates to collective bargaining and behavioural pattern of consumer?

 

behavioural variables

company variables

product variables

market variables

  1. ___________ relates to weight, unit, value, technicality, perishability of a product?

 

behavioural variables

company variables

product variables

market variables

  1. _________ relates to government policy/regulations/policies competition, technological innovation, prevalent economic conditions, political and cultural settings?

 

behavioural variables

company variables

product variables

external environment variables

  1. _________ relates to the financial capacity of manufacturers, size, expertise and desire for managerial control?

 

behavioural variables

company variables

product variables

market variables

Bottom of Form

WEEK 6

Transportation l

Performance Objectives

Students should be able to:

  1. Explain the meaning of transportation in marketing
  2. List the importance of transportation in marketing

Content

  1. Meaning of transportation
  2. Importance of transportation in marketing.

Meaning of Transportation

Transportation can be described as the physical movements of products from places of manufacturing to other channels of distribution to get to the hands of the ultimate users.

This connotes the physical carriage of finished products from the place of manufacturing to the place where it would be accessible and available to the target audience either wholesaler, sales agent, retailers and ultimately to the final consumer. Production of goods and services might not have completed until the goods and services get to ultimate consumers and consumed by the buyers of the product. It is otherwise known as routes of marketing products.

Importance of transportation in marketing

  1. It generates employment for different categories of skilled and semi-labour such as commercial drivers, mechanics, dealers and suppliers of motor spare parts etc.
  2. It helps to bring products nearer to the consumer.
  3. It helps to stabilize the exchange process.
  4. It enhances social interaction.
  5. It helps in sustaining the economic activities of a nation.
  6. It promotes business transaction and negotiation efficiency.
  7. It promotes international trade and relations.
  8. It facilitates and enhances the exchange process.
  9. It helps in the exchange of foreign currencies.
  10. It promotes transnational and cultural relationships and languages.

WEEK 7

Transportation ll

Performance Objectives

Students should be able to:

  1. State the major modes of transportation
  2. State the form of land transport.
  3. Identify the advantages and disadvantages of land transport.

Content

  1. Mode of transportation
  • Land
  1. Forms of land transport
  • Road

  • Rail

iii. Advantages and disadvantages of each form of land transport.

 

Land

Land transport is the transport or movement of people, animals or goods from one location to another location on land. The two main forms of land transport are rail transport and road transport.

Forms of Land Transport

Road Transport

These include vehicles such as trailers, buses, cars, etc. that carry products from one place to another. The road is a route between two destinations, which has been either paved or worked on to enable transportation by way of motorised and non-motorised carriages.

 

Advantages of Road Transport

  1. Less Capital Outlay:

Road transport required much less capital investment as compared to other modes of transport such as railways and air transport. The cost of constructing, operating and maintaining roads is cheaper than that of the railways. Roads are generally constructed by the government and local authorities and only a small revenue is charged for the use of roads.

  1. Door to Door Service:

The outstanding advantage of road transport is that it provides door to door or warehouse to warehouse service. This reduces cartage, loading and unloading expenses.

  1. Service in Rural Areas:

Road transport is most suited for carrying goods and people to and from rural areas which are not served by rail, water or air transport. Exchange of goods, between large towns and small villages, is made possible only through road transport.

  1. Flexible Service:
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Road transport has a great advantage over other modes of transport for its flexible service, its routes and timings can be adjusted and changed to individual requirements without much inconvenience.

  1. Suitable for Short Distance:

It is more economic and quicker for carrying goods and people over short distances. Delays in transit of goods on account of intermediate loading and handling are avoided. Goods can be loaded directly into a road vehicle and transported straight to their place of destination.

  1. Lesser Risk of Damage in Transit:

As the intermediate loading and handling are avoided, there is lesser risk of damage, breakage etc. of the goods in transit. Thus, road transport is most suited for transporting delicate goods like chinaware and glassware, which are likely to be damaged in the process of loading and unloading.

  1. Saving in Packing Cost:

As compared to other modes of transport, the process of packing in motor transport is less complicated. Goods transported by motor transport require less packing or no packing in several cases.

  1. Rapid Speed:

If the goods are to be sent immediately or quickly, motor transport is more suited than the railways or water transport. Water transport is very slow. Also, much time is wasted in booking the goods and taking delivery of the goods in case of railway and water transport.

Road transport not only requires less initial capital investment, the cost of operation and maintenance is also comparatively less. Even if the rate charged by motor transport is a little higher than that by the railways, the actual effective cost of transporting goods by motor transport is less. The actual cost is less because the motor transport saves in packing costs and the expenses of intermediate loading, unloading and handling charges.

 

Disadvantages of Road Transport

  1. Seasonal Nature:

Motor transport is not as reliable as rail transport. During rainy or flood season, roads become unfit and unsafe for use.

  1. Accidents and Breakdowns:

There are more chances of accidents and breakdowns in case of motor transport. Thus, motor transport is not as safe as rail transport.

  1. Unsuitable for Long Distance and Bulky Traffic:

This mode of transport is unsuitable and costly for transporting cheap and bulky goods over long distances.

  1. Slow Speed:

The speed of motor transport is comparatively slow and limited.

  1. Lack of Organisation:

The road transport is comparatively less organised. More often, it is irregular and undependable. The rates charged for transportation are also unstable and unequal.

 

Rail Transport

These involve trains that carry heavy plants and machinery. Rail transport is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, which are located on tracks.

Advantages of Rail Transport

  1. Dependable:

The greatest advantage of the railway transport is that it is the most dependable mode of transport as it is the least affected by weather conditions such as rains, fog etc. compared to other modes of transport.

  1. Better Organized:

Rail transport is better organized than any other form of transport. It has fixed routes and schedules. Its service is more certain, uniform and regular as compared to other modes of transport.

  1. High Speed over Long Distances:

Its speed over long distances is more than any other mode of transport, except airways. Thus, it is the best choice for long-distance traffic.

  1. Suitable for Bulky and Heavy Goods:

Railway transport is economical, quicker and best suited for carrying heavy and bulky goods over long distances.

  1. Cheaper Transport:

It is a cheaper mode of transport compared to other modes of transport. Most of the working expenses of railways are in the nature of fixed costs. Every increase in railway traffic is followed by a decrease in the average cost. Rail transport is economical in the use of labour also as one driver and one guard are sufficient to carry much more load than the motor transport.

  1. Safety:

The railway is the safest form of transport. The chances of accidents and breakdowns of railways are minimum as compared to other modes of transport. Moreover, the traffic can be protected from exposure to sun, rains, snow etc.

  1. Larger Capacity:

The carrying capacity of the railways is extremely large. Moreover, its capacity is elastic which can easily be increased by adding more wagons.

Disadvantages of Rail Transport

  1. Loss of Goods:

Because goods in bulk quantities are carried chances of goods getting lost are high in the case of railway transport as compared to air and road transport.

  1. Unsafe for Fragile Items:

Railway transportation is particularly unsafe for carrying fragile items like glass because these items can easily break at times when a train halts unexpectedly of when the train is speeding up at times.

  1. Late Bookings:

Because the railway is the cheapest medium of transport, it is hard to find suitable bookings for the transportation of your goods. Railway transport is not suitable in cases of emergency.

  1. Unsuitable for Short Distances:

Railway transport is unsuitable for carrying goods at shorter distances; road transport is most suitable in this case.

  1. Unsuitable for Rural Areas:

The proper railway system is not build up in the Indian villages as a result of which railway transport is unsuitable in the villages of India. Whatever be the disadvantages of railway transport it was, it is and it will always be the safest and the best means for the transportation of goods.

WEEK 8

Transportation lll

Performance Objectives

Students should be able to:

  1. Explain transportation by air
  2. State the advantages and disadvantages of air transport.

Content

  1. Air transport
  2. Advantages and disadvantages of air transport.

 

Air Transport

These include the aeroplanes, cargo planes, helicopters, jets, etc. that carry high-priced speciality goods, machinery and industrial products etc. Air transport is an important enabler to achieving economic growth and development. Air transport facilitates integration into the global economy and provides vital connectivity on a national, regional, and international scale. It helps generate trade, promote tourism, and create employment opportunities.

Advantages of Air Transport

  1. High Speed

It is the fastest mode of transport and therefore suitable for the carriage of goods over a long distance. It requires less time.

  1. Quick Service

Air transport provides comfortable, efficient and quick transport services. It is regarded as the best mode of transport for transporting perishable goods.

No Infrastructure Investment

Air transport does not give emphasis on the construction of tracks like railways. As no capital investment in the surface track is needed, it is a less costly mode of transport.

  1. Easy Access

Air transport is regarded as the only means of transport in those areas which are not easily accessible to other modes of transport. It is therefore accessible to all areas regardless of the obstruction of land.

  1. No Physical Barrier

Air transport is free from physical barriers because it follows the shortest and direct routes where seas, mountains and forests do not obstruct.

  1. Natural Route

Aircrafts travels to any place without any natural obstacles or barriers because the custom formalities are compiled very quickly. It avoids delay in obtaining clearance.

  1. National defence

It plays a significant role in the national defence of the country because modern wars are conducted with the help of aeroplanes. Airways has an upper hand a destroying the enemy in a short period.

The disadvantage of air transport

In spite of many advantages, air transport has some disadvantage also.

  1. Risky

Air transport is the riskiest form of transport because a minor accident may put a substantial loss to the goods, passengers and the crew. The chances of accidents are greater in comparison to other modes of transport.

  1. Very Costly

Air transport is considered costlier as compare to other modes of transport. The operating cost of aero-planes are higher and it involves a great deal of expenditure on the construction of aerodromes and aircraft. Because of this reason, the fare for air transport is high that common people can’t afford it.

  1. Small Carrying Capacity

The aircraft have small carrying capacity and therefore these are not suitable for carrying bulky and cheaper goods. The load capacity cannot be increased as it is found in case of rails.

  1. Unreliable

Air transport is unreliable as it depends on the weather forecast. Normally if the weather is not certain the flight may get delayed.

  1. Huge Investment

Air transport requires huge investment for construction and maintenance of aerodromes. It also requires trained, experienced and skilled personnel which involves a substantial investment.

WEEK 9

Transportation lV

Performance Objectives

Students should be able to:

  1. Explain the meaning of water transport
  2. State the advantages and disadvantages of water transport.

Content

  1. Water transport
  2. Advantages and disadvantages of water transport.

 

 Water Transport

These include the speed boat, canoes, ships etc. that carry both heavy plants and machinery or lightweight products. Water transportation is the intentional movement of water over large distances, and is the process of moving people, goods, etc. by barge, boat, ship or sailboat over a sea, ocean, lake, canal, river, etc.

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Advantages of Water Transport

  1. Less Maintenance Cost:

Maintenance cost in rail and road transport is quite high but the maintenance cost of water transport is quite less.

  1. Cheap:

The transport channel is quite cheap as compared to rail and road transport.

  1. Useful for Bulky Goods:

Heavy and bulky goods can be transported easily at little cost through water transport.

  1. Useful During Natural Calamities:

During natural calamities like flood and rains, when rail and road transport is disrupted, relief operations can be operated through water transport.

  1. Helpful in Defence:

Development of shipping is essential for the defence of the country also. It is also called the second line of defence.

  1. Important for Foreign Trade:

Water transport plays important role in foreign trade. India’s foreign trade is mainly dependent on water transport.

Disadvantages of Water Transport

The following are the disadvantages of water transport:

  1. Slow Speed:

It is a slow means of transport. Failure of monsoon results into fall in the water level of rivers making navigation difficult.

  1. Riskier:

Water transport is riskier as compared to other means because there is always the danger of sinking ships or boats.

WEEK 10

Transportation V

Performance Objectives

Students should be able to:

  1. Identify the document used in transportation in marketing
  2. State the factors that influence the choice and documents used in transportation.

Content

  1. Choice of transportation
  2. Document used in transportation in marketing.

Choice of Transportation

Marketing firms decision on the choice of transportation to make use of in transporting their products to the end-users is influenced by the following factors:

  1. The nature of the product: Perishability, durability, storage, the fragility of the product.
  2. The product variables: Weight, kilogrammes, packaging, heaviness decide the choice of transportation. E.g, industrial plants and machinery/equipment are usually transported by either rail or water.

iii. Cost advantage: Marketing firms also consider cost variables as to cheapness of carrying a product. For instance, it is better to carry several tons of cement from point of manufacturing through the railway to a far distance place than using a trailer. It is less expensive compared to the use of trailers.

  1. Nearness to market: When the market or the location of the ultimate consumer is very close to the producer, this most often determine the mode of transport use.
  2. Location of the company: When the company is not too far to the market or not in remote areas dues to raw materials as an important factor that determines the location of a company, organisations make use of best transportation that is cheaper and convenient.

 

  1. Company Variables: This relates to the financial capacity of manufacturers, size, expertise and desire for managerial control.

vii. Intermediary Variables: This relates to cost, availability and kind of services provided.

viii. Behavioural Variables: This relates to collective bargaining and behavioural pattern of consumer.

 

Documents used in Transportation in Marketing

Transport documents are contracts for carriage of goods exchanged between different actors. They differ depending on the method of carriage used.

Bill of Lading

The Bill of Lading (B/L) is a contract for maritime carriage that specifies the taking of responsibility, or the loading, of goods by the carrier. It contains detailed information on the goods, the boat and the port of destination.

It is a document of title to the goods, that gives the right to their ownership. The carrier commits to delivering the goods to the person who holds the bill of lading and who will come and get the goods. It is a transferable title: the originals may be transferred by endorsement.

Sea Waybill

The Sea Waybill documents only the carriage contract signed by the shipper and the maritime transport line and represents the receipt of the goods. It contains detailed information on the port of embarkation, the port of destination, the name of the ship, the name of the shipper, the name and the address of the recipient.

Different from the Maritime Bill of Lading, the Sea Waybill is not a document of title to the goods and is non-transferable.

Consignment Note (CMR)

The CMR consignment note certifies the carrier’s taking of responsibility for the merchandise and shipping upon signature by the carrier. It documents a carriage contract of the goods that exist independently of them. It must be established in the form specified by the “Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road” (CMR).

Air Waybill (AWB)

The Air Waybill constitutes the proof of the carriage contract, the taking of responsibility for the goods and the documentation of the prices. It certifies the effective shipment once the carrier has entered the date and number of the flight. It is standardized by the IATA (International Air Transport Association), that moreover, develops solutions for the dematerialization of AWB’s.

In the case of grouping, when goods are gathered with other goods to complete a load for the same destination, the forwarder that groups the goods becomes legally, with respect to the carrier, the shipper and thus the drafter of the parent air waybill, referred to as the Master Air Waybill (MAWB). A “daughter” air waybill referred to as the House Air Waybill (HAWB) documents the contract between the forwarder and each of the shippers included in a grouping.

Rail Consignment Note (CIM)

The Rail Consignment Note (CIM) or International Consignment Note is a document governed by the 1980 Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail (COTIF-CIM). It is issued by the carrier and is considered as the rail carriage contract. This document is non-transferable and is not requested upon arrival.

Test: Marketing SSS2 First Term Final Assessment

Top of Form

  1. Does transportation generate employment?

 

True

False

  1. Does transportation never help in exchange for foreign currency?

 

True

False

  1. Does transportation promote international trade?

 

True

False

  1. Transportation can be described as the physical movements of products from places of manufacturing to other channels of distribution to get to the hands of the ultimate users?

 

True

False

  1. Transportation does not promote transnational and cultural relationships and languages?

 

True

False

  1. Motor transport is not as reliable as rail transport?

 

True

False

  1. _______ involves trains that carry heavy plants and machinery?

 

road transport

rail transport

sea transport

cargo transport

  1. ________ is the transport or movement of people, animals or goods from one location to another location on land?

 

road transport

rail transport

sea transport

land transport

  1. _________ is the safest form of transport?

 

road transport

rail transport

sea transport

cargo transport

  1. _________ include vehicles such as trailers, buses, cars,etc. that carry products from one place to another?

 

road transport

rail transport

sea transport

cargo transport

  1. . Air transport is the fastest mode of transport?

 

True

False

  1. Air transport is the riskiest form of transport?

 

True

False

  1. . __________ include the aeroplanes, cargo planes, helicopters, jets?

 

road transport

rail transport

sea transport

air transport

  1. Do the aircraft have a small carrying capacity?

 

True

False

  1. Air transport is unreliable as it depends on the weather forecast?

 

True

False

  1. Maintenance cost in rail and road transport is quite high but the maintenance cost of water transport is quite less?

 

True

False

  1. Does water transport include the speed boat, canoes, ships, vehicles, and tricycle?

 

True

False

  1. Water transport is riskier as compared to other means because there is always the danger of sinking ships or boats?

 

True

False

  1. Heavy and bulky goods can be transported easily at little cost through water transport?

 

True

False

  1. India’s foreign trade is mainly dependent on water transport?

 

True

False

  1. __________ certifies the effective shipment once the carrier has entered the date and number of the flight?

 

sea waybill

bill of landing

rail consignment note

air waybill

  1. _____________ is a contract for maritime carriage that specifies the taking of responsibility, or the loading, of goods by the carrier?

 

sea waybill

bill of landing

rail consignment note

consignment note

  1. __________ certifies the carrier’s taking of responsibility for the merchandise and shipping upon signature by the carrier?

 

sea waybill

bill of landing

rail consignment note

consignment note

  1. __________ documents only the carriage contract signed by the shipper and the maritime transport line and represents the receipt of the goods?

 

sea waybill

bill of landing

rail consignment note

consignment note

  1. ___________ is issued by the carrier and is considered as the rail carriage contract?

 

sea waybill

bill of landing

rail consignment note

consignment note

Hope you got what you visited this page for? The above is the lesson note for Marketing for SS2 class. However, you can download the free PDF file for record purposes.

If you have any questions as regards Marketing lesson note For SS2 class, kindly send them to us via the comment section below and we shall respond accordingly as usual.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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