English Lesson Note for SS1 (Second Term) 2023

English lesson note for SS1 Second Term is now available for free. The State and Federal Ministry of Education has recommended unified lesson notes for all secondary schools in Nigeria, in other words, all private secondary schools in Nigeria must operate with the same lesson notes based on the scheme of work for English.

English lesson note for SS1  Second Term has been provided in detail here on schoolings.org

English Lesson Note for SS1 (Second Term) [year] 1

For prospective school owners, teachers, and assistant teachers, English lesson note is defined as a guideline that defines the contents and structure of English as a subject offered at SS level. The lesson note for English for SS stage maps out in clear terms, how the topics and subtopics for a particular subject, group works and practical, discussions and assessment strategies, tests, and homework ought to be structured in order to fit in perfectly, the approved academic activities for the session.

To further emphasize the importance of this document, the curriculum for English spells out the complete guide on all academic subjects in theory and practical. It is used to ensure that the learning purposes, aims, and objectives of the subject meant for that class are successfully achieved.

English Lesson note for SS1 carries the same aims and objectives but might be portrayed differently based on how it is written or based on how you structure your lesson note. Check how to write lesson notes as this would help make yours unique.

The SS1 English lesson note provided here is in line with the current scheme of work hence, would go a long way in not just helping the teachers in carefully breaking down the subject, topics, and subtopics but also, devising more practical ways of achieving the aim and objective of the subject.

The sudden increase in the search for SS1 English lesson note for Second Term is expected because every term, tutors are in need of a robust lesson note that carries all topics in the curriculum as this would go a long way in preparing students for the West African Secondary Examination.

This post is quite a lengthy one as it provides in full detail, the English-approved lesson note for all topics and sub-topics in English as a subject offered in SS1.

Please note that English lesson note for SS1 provided here for Second Term is approved by the Ministry of Education based on the scheme of work.

I made it free for tutors, parents, guardians, and students who want to read ahead of what is being taught in class.

SS1 English Lesson Note (Second Term) 2023

 

 

SS1 SECOND TERM ENGLISH LANGUAGE

 

WEEK ONE: – REVISION AND GRAMMAR: PREFIX AND SUFFIX

WEEK TWO: – GRAMMAR: PREPOSITIONS AND PREPOSITIONAL AND PHRASE VOCABULARY: ANTONYMS

WEEK THREE: – SPEECH WORK: CONSONANT CLUSTER GRAMMAR: TENSE COMPOSITION: FORMAL LETTER

WEEK FOUR: – SPEECH WORK: STRESS, VOCABULARY: SYNONYMS AND VOCABULARY: WORDS ASSOCIATED WITH SEXUALITY

WEEK FIVE: – GRAMMAR: PHRASAL VERBS

WEEK SIX: – SPEECH WORK: FALLING INTONATION, GRAMMAR: WILL AND WOULD, VOCABULARY: WORDS ASSOCIATED WITH PHOTOGRAPHY AND COMPOSITION: RECORD KEEPING

WEEK SEVEN: – SPEECH WORK: RISING AND FALLING INTONATION AND VOCABULARY: WORDS ASSOCIATED WITH SPORTS

WEEK EIGHT: – GRAMMAR: SHALL AND SHOULD, VOCABULARY: WORDS ASSOCIATED WITH TRANSPORTATION AND COMPOSITION: SPEECH WRITING

WEEK NINE: – SPEECH WORK: CONTRASTING CONSONANTS, GRAMMAR: PUNCTUATION MARKS AND COMPOSITION: ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY

WEEK TEN: – GRAMMAR: PUNCTUATION MARKS CONT’D AND SPELLING: HOMOPHONES

 

 

 

 

WEEK 1

INTRODUCTION

Prefixes and Suffixes are part of affixes. They are letters or groups of letters added to the beginning and end of a word, respectively, to change its meaning or word class. They are an important aspect of language that helps in the formation of new words.

 

PREFIXES:

Prefixes are letters or group of letters, which are added to the beginning of a word, to change its meaning. Some of them cannot stand on their own, so, they are added to other base words, for them to derive meaning.

They can reflect negativity, repetition, or indicate an opinion; when added to words.

Examples of prefixes are Un-, Dis-, Over-, Il-, Im-, Pre-, etc.

When the prefixes “un”, “dis” or “in” are added to a word, they are used to reflect the negative aspect of that word.

For example: Happy = Unhappy, Faithful= Unfaithful, Lovable= Unlovable, Like= Dislike, Interest= Disinterest, Valid= Invalid, Appropriate = Inappropriate.

When the prefix “re” is added to words, it is used to show repetition. For example:

Deploy= Redeploy, Visit= Revisit, etc.

In adding prefixes to words in English, hyphens are sometimes used to make the meaning clearer.

For example, if the prefix “self” is being added to a word, a hyphen should be used. E.g:

Self-examination, Self-esteem, Self-respect, etc.

Also, if the prefix “ex” is being added to a word, and it is used to mean something that was in existence before, but no longer applies now, a hyphen must be used. E.g:

Ex-convict, Ex-corps member, Ex-husband, etc.

Prefixes change the meaning of words, now we shall examine more examples:

 

PrefixBase WordPrefix + Base word
Il-LegalIllegal
Re-ExamineRe-examine
Un-AbleUnable
Dis-UnityDisunity
Pre-RecordPre-record
Pro-ActivePro-active
E-CommerceE-commerce

 

SUFFIXES:

Suffixes are letters or groups of letters added to the end of words to change their meaning and word class. They cannot stand on their own, as they derive their meaning when added to a base word.

There are two types of suffixes, which are derivational suffixes and inflectional suffixes.

Derivational Suffixes are suffixes that when added to a word, change the meaning and part of speech of the word, entirely.

For example, they can change words from being a noun to adjective, noun to verb, verbs to adjectives, the verb to an adverb, etc.

When the suffix –ly is added to the noun “love”, it becomes “lovely”, which is an adjective.

When the suffix –ize is added to the noun “memory”, it becomes “memorize”, which is a verb.

When the suffix –able is added to the verb “understand”, it becomes “understandable”, which is an adjective.

When the suffix –ly is added to the verb “brave”, it becomes “bravely”, which is an adverb.

 

Inflectional Suffixes are suffixes that when added to words, change the tense of the word, or change it from being singular to plural.

When suffix –s is added to “boy”, it becomes “boys, ” reflecting a change in the number.

When suffix –ing is added to “dance”, it becomes “dancing”, which affects its tense, changing it from simple present tense to continuous tense.

 

SuffixBase WordSuffix + Base Word
-ishChildChildish
-erWorkWorker
-lessRestRestless
-ise/ -izeMemoryMemorize
-ableUnderstandUnderstandable
-lyFaithfulFaithfully
-ingDanceDancing

 

 

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SUFFIXES AND PREFIXES

  • Prefixes occur at the beginning of words, while suffixes are added to the end of a word.
  • When prefixes are added to words, they only change the meaning of the word, while when suffixes are added to words, they change both the meaning of the word, and its word-class/ part of speech.

 

SUMMARY:

Prefixes and Suffixes are types of affixes, and they are added at the beginning and end of words, respectively, to change their meanings.

 

ASSESSMENT:

  1. Add the following prefixes to base words, and write down the meaning of the new word:

Dis-, Fore-, Inter-, Ex-, Mis-. In-, Non-.

  1. Add the following suffixes to base words, and write down the meaning of the new words:

-al, -er, -ful, -ible, -ily, -ness, -age, -ant, -ion.

 

Week 2

 

OBJECTIVES:

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Define preposition
  • Define phrase, and preposition phrase with examples
  • Use prepositional phrases in sentences

 

INTRODUCTION:

Prepositions are words that show the position of people or things, about other people or things. It is one of the eight parts of speech.

 

Prepositions are used to show the relationship between words in a sentence. It is used to tell the location, time, place, direction, and relationship between people and things. It tells the position of a person/thing, as it relates with another person/thing.

 

A preposition must always be followed by a noun, a noun phrase or a pronoun in a sentence.

 

Examples of preposition are:

By, off, in, on, inside, beneath, behind, before, after, to, above, near, with, for, since, through, down, during, across, beside, against, across, etc.

 

A phrase is a group of words without a finite verb. A finite verb is a verb that shows agreement with the subject in terms of tense, they are also known as main verbs.

 

Examples of the finite verb are: wash, work, run, eat, etc. They depict action and can reflect agreement with their subject in terms of tense.

 

A phrase has no finite verb; hence, it does not give any meaning on its own. It is a unit in grammar that is usually part of a clause or sentence.

There are different types of phrases, which are:

  • Noun phrase
  • Verbal phrase
  • Prepositional phrase

PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE

A prepositional phrase is a group of words with a preposition, and an object it modifies. The object could be a noun, pronoun, gerund or clause.

A prepositional phrase takes this structure: preposition + noun/pronoun/gerund/noun phrase

Examples of prepositional phrases are: in the room, on the floor, behind the tree, across the street, off the roof, through the window, between the books, with Francis, by her, etc.

A prepositional phrase is divided into adjectival Phrase and adverbial phrase.

PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE FUNCTIONING AS AN ADJECTIVAL PHRASE

An adjective is a word that describes a noun or pronoun. So, a prepositional phrase can function as an adjectival phrase, to describe a noun or pronoun.

Examples:

  1. The ladiesinside the room are my friends.

The word “ladies” is a noun, and the group of words “inside the room” is a prepositional phrase, which is functioning as an adjective to describe the noun “ladies”.

 

  1. The bagon the chair is for her.

The word “bag” is a noun, and the group of words “on the chair” is a prepositional phrase, which is functioning as an adjective to describe the noun “bag”.

 

  1. The womanbehind the house is my aunt.

The word “woman” is a noun, and the group of words “behind the house” is a prepositional phrase, which is functioning as an adjective to describe the noun “woman”.

 

  1. The bookwith the green cover has been stolen.

The word “book” is a noun, and the group of words “with the green cover” is a prepositional phrase, which is functioning as an adjective to describe the noun “book”.

 

  1. The shoebetween the bags is mine.

The word “shoe” is a noun, and the group of words “between the bags” is a prepositional phrase, which is functioning as an adjective to describe the noun “shoe”.

 

PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE FUNCTIONING AS AN ADVERBIAL PHRASE

An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective and other adverbs. A prepositional phrase can also function as an adverbial phrase, by modifying verbs and other adverbs.

Examples:

  1. I will siton the chair.

The word “sit” is a verb, and the group of words “on the chair” is a prepositional phrase, which is functioning as an adverbial phrase, by modifying the verb “sit”.

 

  1. rodedown the street.

The word “rode” is a verb, and the group of words “down the street” is a prepositional phrase, which is functioning as an adverbial phrase, by modifying the verb “rode”.

 

  1. She ranup the hill.

The word “ran” is a verb, and the group of words “up the hill” is a prepositional phrase, which is functioning as an adverbial phrase, by modifying the verb “ran”.

 

  1. sawher during the break.

The word “saw” is a verb, and the group of words “during the break” is a prepositional phrase, which is functioning as an adverbial phrase, by modifying the verb “saw”.

 

  1. We will buythe books at the bookshop.

The word “buy” is a verb, and the group of words “at the bookshop” is a prepositional phrase, which is functioning as an adverbial phrase, by modifying the verb “buy”.

 

SUMMARY:

Prepositional phrases can function as adjectival and adverbial phrases, as have been explained above.

 

ASSESSMENT:

Point out the prepositional phrases in the following sentences and indicate whether it functions as an adjectival phrase or an adverbial phrase.

  1. She washed the clothes in the bathroom.
  2. The boy in the car is my cousin.
  3. The girls in the backyard are my sisters.
  4. They drove their cars down the street
  5. She cleaned the house on Saturday
  6. They travelled with their dog.
  7. The man at the door is my uncle
  8. I travelled during the holiday.
  9. The apple in the fridge is for daddy.
  10. The lady in the lobby is his wife.

 

 

 

VOCABULARY: ANTONYMS

Antonyms are words that are exactly opposite in meaning. They contradict each other, and some of them shall be listed as follows”

WordsAntonyms
RespectDisdain
LoudQuiet
InnocentGuilty
PromoteDemote
BuildDemolish
GiantDwarf
FailSucceed
RetreatAdvance
BetrayalLoyalty
OriginalFake
ExpensiveCheap
ExpertAmateur
RefinedCrude
RejectAccept
WealthyPoor
LeaderFollower
HatredLove
ProgressionRegression
AllyEnemy
PublicPrivate
BraveryCowardice

 

 

 

WEEK 3

SPEECH WORK: CONSONANT CLUSTERS

OBJECTIVES:

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Define consonant clusters
  • Mention and explain the types of consonant cluster
  • Identify words that carry consonant cluster

INTRODUCTION:

Consonant clusters are a group of consonants that appear together in a syllable in a word, either at the initial, medial or final position, with no vowels between them.

Consonant clusters are a group of consonants that occur together in a syllable, without any vowel occurring between them. It is also known as a consonant blend.

Consonant clusters can appear at the initial, medial or final position in words. The maximum number of consonants that can be clustered at the initial position of a word is 3, while the maximum number that can occur at the final position is 4.

TYPES OF CONSONANT CLUSTERS

  • Word Initial Cluster: This refers to consonant clusters that occur at the beginning or initial position of a word. The maximum number of consonant clusters that can occur at the beginning of a syllable/word is three (3).

Two Consonant Cluster at the beginning of a word:

  1. Pl- Place, Please, Pleasure
  2. Pr- Pray, Preach, Practice
  3. Tr- Trade, Training, Travel
  4. Gl- Glean, Glass, Gloss
  5. Gr- Green, Great, Ground
  6. Fr- Fridge, Free, Fresh
  7. Bl- Blessing, Blast, Blame
  8. Dr- Drew, Drama, Dress
  9. Sp- Spit, Spent, Spacious
  10. Sw-Sweep, Swim, Swell

Three Consonant Cluster at the beginning of a word:

  1. Spl- Split, Splash, Splatter
  2. Str- Street, Stream, Stress
  3. Spr- Sprint, Spread, Sprain
  4. Scr- Screen, Scream, Screw
  • Word Medial Cluster: This refers to the consonant clusters that occur in the middle position in a word.

Two Consonant Clusters that occur in the middle of a word:

  1. mp- Camping, Dampen, Import
  2. xp- Export,
  3. ck- Blacken
  4. rk- Darken

Three Consonant Clusters that occur in the middle of a word:

  1. scr- Description,
  2. str- Restriction
  3. mpl- Sampling, Temple
  • Word End Cluster: This refers to consonant clusters that occur at the end or final position of a word. The maximum number of consonant clusters that can occur at the end of a syllable is four (4).

Two Consonant Cluster at the end of a word:

  1. pt- Slept, Swept, Tempt
  2. ld- Gold, Told, Sold
  3. st- Test, Rest, Best
  4. bs- Jobs, Mobs, Robs
  5. ks- Books, Cooks, Looks

Three Consonant Cluster at the end of a word:

  1. mpt- Tempt,
  2. fts- Drafts, Rafts,
  3. lst- Whilst

Four consonant Cluster at the end of a word:

  1. ngst- Amongst
  2. mpts- Prompts

SUMMARY:

Consonant Clusters can appear in any position in a word, as seen in the examples given above, and they are to be pronounced together.

ASSESSMENT:

  1. What is a consonant cluster
  2. Write ten words each that have consonant clusters at the initial, medial and final position.

GRAMMAR: TENSE

SIMPLE PRESENT, SIMPLE PAST, PRESENT PERFECT, CONTINUOUS TENSE

OBJECTIVES:

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Explain what tense is
  • Define simple present tense, simple past tense, present perfect tense and continuous tense
  • Give examples of words, in the above tenses, and make sentences with them.

INTRODUCTION:

Tense is an aspect of grammar that tells the time of an action. It is used to tell whether an action is currently happening, just happened, or would later happen.

There are three classes of tenses, which are: Present Tense, Past Tense and Future Tense.

  1. Present Tense

Simple Present Tense

We use the simple present tense:

  • To show a factor something that is always true.

Examples

  • The heart pumps blood through the body.
  • A doctor treats patients.
  • Babies cry.
  • For daily routinesor something is done regularly or habitually.

Examples:

  • I never work on weekends.
  • I do exercise every morning.
  • She goes to church on Sundays.
  • For an action that is plannedto happen in the future.

Examples:

  • The train for Apapa departs at seven o’clock.
  • The meeting begins in an hour’s time.
  • To express thoughts,feelings and states.

Examples:

  • They feel a lot of loyalty to the company.
  • Joke doubts the truth of  Damilare’s statement.
  • For sports, commentariesreviews(book, film, play, etc.) and narration.

Examples:

  • She plays her role marvellously.
  • The witch suddenly appears out of nowhere and whacks him with the broom.
  • In newspaper headlines.

Examples:

  • President Jonathan leaves Aso Rock.
  • General Buhari, the new Nigerian President.
  • for instructionsdirections.

Examples:

  • Mix the flour and water together, then add sugar.
  • Go straight on and when you come to the first traffic lights, turn left.
  • with the following time expressions: all the time, at night/the weekend, every day/week/month/year, in the morning/afternoon/evening, on Mondays/Tuesday, etc., once/twice a day/week, etc.

Examples:

  • He beats the dog all the time.
  • Busola often visits comevery evening.

 

Present Continuous Tense

We use the present continuous tense to show we are in the middle of an activity that is in progress at this moment. The activity started in the past and will go on in the future.

Example:

  • I am praying / I’m writing.

So when we use the present continuous tense we are talking about something that is still on and not yet finished or complete at the time of speaking.

 

Forming the Present Continuous Tense

The present continuous tense of any verb is formed with the simple present tense of the verb to be (=am, is, are) and the present participle of the main verb (verb + ing)

Examples:

  • am riding a bicycle to the market.
  • Micheal is walkingout after a row with his girlfriend.

We use the present continuous tense:

  • For an action that is still happening at the time of speaking.

Example:

  • Sheis cooking noodles now.
  • For an action that is still going on about this time but not necessary at the time of speaking.
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Example:

  • Joke is teachingat a secondary girls’ school. (She is not actually teaching now. She may be watching television or playing with his cat at the moment of speaking.)
  • to talk about an action that has been planned or arranged to take place at a particular time in the immediate or distant future.

Example:

  • We are going on an excursion in two weeks.
  • To describe a situation that is temporary and does not happen as usual.

Example:

  • He is usually the hero of the film, but he is playingthe role of a villain.
  • To describe a repeated action that the speaker finds irritating.

Example:

  • He isalways making me angry with his rude comments.
  • with ‘always’, ‘very often’, ‘forever, ‘constantly’ to describe an action that happens many times or frequently.

Example:

  • My old caris always breaking
  • very often go to my mum’s house for food.

With present continuous tense questions, we use: am/are/is + subject + …ing. E.g. Am I angry? What are your cats doing in my garden? Is your dog barking at the postman?

We use the present continuous tense in the following ways:

  • Statement: I am eating – we place the verb to be (am/is/are) after the subject (I).
  • Negative: He is not reading – we place not after the verb to be (am/is/are).
  • Question: Are they coming here? – we place the verb to be (am/is/are) before the subject (they).

Present Perfect Tense

The Present Perfect Tense connects the present to the past. It describes an action that happened in the past and goes right to the present moment. The time of occurrence of the action is not mentioned. Usually, the time is not important or is not necessary to know. It is the result of the action that matters. It tells us the outcome to date of the action. E.g., “Frank has gone” tell us that Frank is no longer with us.

To express something in the present perfect tense, join the present simple tense of have/has with the past participle of the main verb (which can be a regular verb or irregular verb).

have/has + past participle

Statement:subject+have/has+past participle
Hehasbrokena glass.
Question form:have/has+subject+past participle
Hashebrokena glass?

e.g.

Tolu has taken my Pen.

They have eaten rice

Present Perfect Continuous Tense

The Present Perfect Continuous Tense is made up of the present perfect tense of the verb to be (have/has been), and the present participle of the main verb (verb + ing)

Statement:subject+have/has+been+(verb + -ing)
Hehasbeenrunning.
Question form:have/has+subject+been+(verb + -ing)
Hashebeenrunning?

The Present Perfect Continuous is:

  • Used for an action that began in the past and has been continuing up to now (and may still be going on)

Example:

  • Bobola and Osas have been talkingabout getting married.
  • Used for an action that began and just finished in the past.

Example:

  • “Look how dirty your hands are.” “Yes, I have been washingthe dishes.”
  • Often used with sinceforever since, etc.

Examples:

  • Grandpa has been playing with his grandchildren for hours.
  • have been looking for my glasses since ten o’clock.
  • Also used with all (all day, all evening, all week) to indicate the duration of an activity, lately, etc.

Examples:

  • He has been sufferingfrom headache all day.
  • I‘ve been feelingill lately.
  • Used with how longto form questions.

Example:

  • How long haveyou been studying English?

 

  1. Past Tense

Simple Past Tense

We use the simple past tense for events that happened or started and completed in the past and that have no relation with the present.

We use the simple past tense:

  • to describe an action that occurred in the past or at a specified timeor the time is easily understood or already implied.

Example: We finished our breakfast an hour ago. (NOT: We have/had finished our breakfast an
an hour ago.)
Example: My brother played soccer for Chelsea two weeks ago.

  • for an action that beganand ended in the past.

Example: The dangerous criminal was recaptured after three months on the run.

  • to refer to an action completedregardless of how recent or distant in the past.

Example: Alexander Bell invented the telephone in 1876.
Example: My brother joined the circus as a clown last week

 

Past Continuous Tense

The past continuous tense is formed with the past tense of the verb to be (was/were) + present participle (verbs ending in …ing).

Example:I/he/she/it was eating spaghetti at 8 o’clock last night.
You/we/they were eating spaghetti at 8 o’clock last night

The past continuous tense questions are formed with was/were + subject + … ing.
Example: What were you doing exactly twenty-four hours ago? (NOT: What did you do exactly
twenty-four hours ago?)

 

The past continuous tense is used:

  • for an action that was taking place in the past when a shorter action (expressed in the simple past tense) happened.

E.g.: I was running when I got hit by a stone.
E.g.: While he was reading his textbook, he fell asleep.
Note: The past continuous tense and the simple past tense are used together

  • with whileto describe two actions that were going on at the same time in the past.

Example: While my brother was laughing, the dog was barking.

The past perfect tense is formed with the past tense of the verb to have (had) and the past participle of the verb (e.g. eaten, stolen, taken).

 

Past Perfect Tense

The past perfect tense describes an event that happened in the past before another event was completed in the past. It tells us which event happened first regardless of which event is mentioned first or second in a sentence or conversation.

The Past Perfect Tense is used:
1. to show an action that happened in the past before another event took place.

  • Words usually used with the Past Perfect tense are whenand after.

Example: They had already left the zoo before I got there.
Example: When he had done his homework, he went for a smoke in the park.
In each of the above examples, there are two past actions. The past perfect tense is combined with a past simple tense to show which of the two actions happened earlier.
The event in the past perfect tense occurred before the event in the simple past tense.

  • Words such as alreadyjustand as soon as are also used with the Past Perfect tense.

Example: It had already stopped raining when I bought an umbrella.
Example: As soon as she bought the fruit, she regretted it.
2. for an action that happened before a definite time in the past.
Example: They had finished their meals by 7:00 pm.

  1. for states.
    Example: They had becomegood friends for many years after meeting on holiday.

When two actions were completed in the past, use a past perfect tense to clarify which event happened earlier.
a) INCORRECT: The bank occupied the building where the bakery was.
b) CORRECT: The bank occupied the building where the bakery had been.
c) INCORRECT: The list of movies you showed me, I saw before.
d) CORRECT: The list of movies you showed me, I had seen before.
In (a), the use of two simple past tenses (occupied; was) imply the bank and bakery occupied the same building at the same time, which was not the case. In (b), the use of the perfect tense (had been) sorts out the order of occupation of the building.
In (c), ‘I saw before’ clearly indicates it happened before the list was shown to me, and so should be in the past perfect tense as in (d).

Before and After
As mentioned above, the event expressed in the past perfect tense occurred earlier than the event in the past simple tense. However, when before or after is used in a sentence, the past perfect tense becomes unnecessary as the two words – before or after – already clarify which action takes place first. We can use the simple past tense instead. Look at these examples.

  1. a) After shehad read the letter, she tore it into pieces.
    b) After sheread the letter, she tore it into pieces.
    c) We had left the cinema before the movie ended.
    d) We left the cinema before the movie ended.
    Changing the past perfect tense to past simple tense does not affect the meaning of the sentences as (a) and (b) have the same meaning, and (c) and (d) have the same meaning.

The past perfect tense and the present perfect tense
The rice bowl was empty. I had eaten the rice.
The rice bowl is empty. I have eaten the rice.
Anna was limping. She had fallen down the stairs.
Anna is limping. She has fallen down the stairs.

 

Indirect speech
The Past Perfect Tense is often used in Reported or Indirect Speech. It is used in place of the verb in the:

1.the present perfect tense in the direct speech:
Direct speech: He said, “I have lost my key.”
Indirect speech: He said he had lost his key.
2.simple past tense in the direct speech:
Direct speech: She said, “I made the biggest mistake of my life
Indirect speech: She said she had made the biggest mistake of her life

 

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

The past perfect continuous tense is formed with the past perfect tense of the verb to be (= had been) + the present participle (–ing).

Example: I had been singing.

The past perfect continuous is used:

  • for an action that occurred over a period of time in the past.

Example: He had been playing the drums in the church choir.

  • for an action that started and finished in the past before another past action. Here, sinceor for is usually used.

Example: Jack got a job at last. He had been looking for a job since last year.
Example: He and his brother had been playing badminton together for ten years before one of them got married.

  • in reported speech, the present perfect continuous tense becomes past perfect continuous tense.

Example: John said, “We have been travelling by train across Europe.”
Example: John said they had been travelling by train across Europe.

 

III. FUTURE TENSE

Simple Future Tense

We use the simple future tense for actions that will happen in the future. How we use it depends on how we view the events that are going to happen. The followings show the different tenses used to express the completion of an activity in the future:

The FBI will conclude their investigation of the internet scam next week. (simple future)
The FBI concluded their investigation of the internet scam next week. (simple present)
The FBI are concluding their investigation of the internet scam next week. (present continuous)
The FBI will be concluding their investigation of the internet scam next week. (future continuous)

SUMMARY:

The various kinds of tenses, used in the English Language are used to tell the time of an action, and this can be in the past, present, and future.

ASSESSMENT:

Make sentences with the following verbs, by using them in the simple present tense, simple past tense, present perfect tense and continuous tense form.

Sleep, Rest, Eat, Cut, Sell, Begin, Write, Steal, Draw, Go.

COMPOSITION WRITING: FORMAL LETTER

LETTER TO THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT CHAIRMAN OR ANY GOVERNMENT AGENCY REQUESTING FOR SOME AMENITIES NEEDED IN YOUR COMMUNITY

44, Smith Radisson Street,

Onihale

Ogun State.

4th January, 2021.

The Chairman,

Ifo Local Government Area,

Ogun State.

P.O. Box 4572.

REQUEST FOR A BOREHOLE AND REPAIR OF ROAD IN MY COMMUNITY

Dear Sir,

My name is Sarah Adeyemi. I live at the above-named address and I am writing this letter to request for a borehole to be constructed in my community, which is under the Local Government Area you govern.

The community has been in dire need of a good and healthy source of water supply, for a while now, but there has been no solution. The water serving the community is not healthy for drinking and cooking, as all we use it for, is to wash and bath, and then purchase pure water to drink and cook.

Also, the road leading into the community is very bad, making it hard for vehicle drivers to come into the community. And this bad road has led to series of accidents in past months, and attention should be promptly paid, to avoid such future reoccurrence.

Finally, I want to appreciate you for your continued effort to take the local government area to a greater height, through your commitment and dedication; we do not take it for granted at all.

Thank you in advance, as I anticipate a positive response to this letter.

Yours faithfully,

Sarah Adeyemi

 

 

 

WEEK 4

SPEECH WORK: STRESS

WORDS WITH STRESS ON THE FIRST SYLLABLE

 

OBJECTIVES:

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Explain what syllable and stress are
  • List words with stress on the first syllable

 

INTRODUCTION:

Stress and Syllable are important aspects of language that are used in the pronunciation of words.

 

A syllable is a single, unbroken unit of the spoken or written word. It is a letter or combination of letters that can be pronounced at once in a word. A syllable contains a single vowel sound.

For example, the word “boy” has one syllable because it can be pronounced at once. While the word “Escape” has two syllables, “es-cape”. Here, “es” is one syllable, because it can be pronounced at a time when pronouncing the word “escape”, and it has a vowel sound.

While stress is the relative emphasis given to a syllable in a word, during pronunciation. Stressed syllables are usually pronounced louder, than unstressed syllables, and they carry a higher pitch.

Stress can occur on any syllable in a word, whether the first, second or last syllable in a word, depending on the number of syllables it has, and the class of word it belongs to.

In this lesson, we would be examining words that have their stress on the first syllable.

 

WORDS WITH STRESS ON THE FIRST SYLLABLE

There are various word classes in the English language, hence, words with their stress on the first syllable would be categorized in that order:

  1. Some two-syllable nouns have their stress on the first syllable:

Examples are DOCtor, HANDicap, TEStimony, EXpert, COffee, WAter, COUNtry, etc.

 

  1. Compound nouns also have their stress on the first syllable:

Examples: SEAfood, FOOTball, BASketball, TOOTHbrush, NOTEbook, etc.

 

  1. Some two-syllable verbs have their stress on the first syllable:

CANcel, ARgue, HAPpen, LImit, INdicate, ORder, Open, etc.

 

  1. Some adjectives have their stress on their first syllable:

HAppy, RAIny, FABulous, DANgerous, GLAMorous, SERious, etc.

 

SUMMARY:

Stress is an important part of the language that influences the pronunciation of words.

 

ASSESSMENT:

Write out twenty words that have their stress on the first syllable.

 

 

VOCABULARY: SYNONYMS

Synonyms are words that have exactly the same meanings or almost similar meaning. Some shall be listed below:

WordSynonym
CourteousPleasant
BeautifulLovely
ExceptionalBrilliant
ImportantCrucial
ChangeReplace
JoyfulElated
ColdFreezing
BigLarge
SmallTiny
TeachInstruct
SmartIntelligent
AngerWrath
AmazingFabulous
ReplyRespond
BeginStart
ShinningShimmering
ShoutYell
FearDread
FamousRenowned
FalseFake

 

 

 

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT ON SEXUALITY, RELIGIOUS TYPES AND DIFFERENT RELIGIOUS VIEWS ON SEXUALITY

Here, we would be examining words that are related to sexuality, religion, and various religious views on the issue of sexuality.

WORDMEANING
ChristianityThis is a religion that is based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. People who practice Christianity are called Christians.
IslamThis is a religion that is based on belief in Allah, and in Muhammed as his prophet. People who practice Islam are called Muslims.
BuddhismThis is a religion that is based on the teaching of Buddha. Meditation is a core part of the religion.
SacrilegeThis is the treating or using of a holy place, in an inappropriate and unacceptable way, without regard for it.
PrayerThis is a means of communicating with God, in a way to speak to and hear from Him.
HeterosexualA heterosexual is a person, who is sexually attracted to members of the opposite sex.
HomosexualA homosexual is a person who is attracted to members of same-sex
GayThis is a male who is sexually attracted to another male
LesbianThis is a female who is sexually attracted to another female
MasturbationThis is the self-stimulation of the genitals, in order to get sexually aroused
ProstitutionThis is the act of engaging in sexual activities for the purpose of being paid.

 

 

WEEK 5

GRAMMAR: PHRASAL VERBS

IDENTIFICATION AND RELATIONSHIP WITH ADVERBIAL PARTICLES

OBJECTIVES:

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Define phrase and their types
  • Define verbs and phrasal verb
  • Identify the relationship of phrasal verbs with adverbial particles

 

INTRODUCTION:

Verbs are words used to depict action or doing and to show the state of being. It is one of the eight parts of speech, and an important aspect of grammar, in the English language.

A phrase is a group of words without a finite verb. A finite verb is a verb that shows agreement with the subject in terms of tense, they are also known as main verbs.

 

Examples of finite verbs are: wash, work, run, eat, etc. They depict action and can reflect agreement with their subject in terms of tense.

 

A phrase has no finite verb; hence, it does not give any meaning on its own. It is a unit in grammar that is usually part of a clause or sentence.

There are different types of phrases, which are:

  • Noun phrase
  • Verbal Phrase
  • Prepositional phrase

 

PHRASAL VERB

A verb is a word that depicts action, state of being or occurrence. It is an important part of a sentence that tells the action performed by the subject. A verb on its own can make a complete statement.

 

Examples of verbs are: Come, Go, Sleep, Work, Dance, Rush, Fall, Sit, Walk, Run, etc.

There are different kinds of verbs, such as action verb, auxiliary verb. Verbs can also be expressed in a tense form, transitive or intransitive form, number, aspect, voice, etc.

A phrasal verb is a group of words that acts as a verb but consists of a verb and either an adverb or a preposition, or both of them. The adverb and preposition are known as particles; adverbial particles and prepositional particles.

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The structure of a phrasal verb is:

Verb + Adverb

Verb + Preposition

Verb + Adverb + Preposition.

Examples of Phrasal verbs are: Add up, Blow away, Break into, Check out, Read through, Come across, Run away, Break out, Look around, Sleep soundly, Walk slowly, Eat quickly, etc.

Examples:

  1. She read throughthe documents before signing.
  2. came acrosshim on the road.
  3. The thieves broke intothe house and took their money.
  4. They looked around, to check for any vacant building.
  5. He ran awaywith the laptop and phone.
  6. They ate quicklyat the restaurant.
  7. She slept soundlyafter the party.
  8. They walked slowlyto the bus stop.
  9. They checked outof the hotel, after the conference.
  10. He added upthe prices of goods bought, in order to pay the retailer.

In the examples given above, the adverbial particles: through, across, away, out, around, etc were added to the verbs, to form phrasal verbs, as seen above.

 

SUMMARY:

Phrasal verbs act as verbs in a statement, they are made up of a verb, adverb and/or a preposition.

ASSESSMENT:

Use the following phrasal verbs to make sentences:

Pass out, Pay back, Run over, Set up, Stick to, Switch on, Take off, Throw away, Warm-up, Wake up, Work out.

 

WEEK 6

SPEECH WORK: INTONATION

FALLING TUNE

 

OBJECTIVES:

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Explain intonation and its different types
  • Define falling intonation with examples

INTRODUCTION:

Intonation is an aspect of language that is closely related to Stress. It is used to show the attitude and emotion of speakers.

Intonation is a variation in the pitch level of one’s voice, when speaking, or during articulation. It refers to how the voice rises and falls during a speech to communicate different meanings in expressions of different kinds.

 

TYPES OF INTONATION

There are four types of intonation that are used when speaking. They are:

  • The Rising Intonation
  • The Falling Intonation
  • The Rise-fall Intonation
  • The Fall-rise Intonation

 

  • The Falling Intonation is the kind of intonation that ends a statement on a falling pitch. It is used in Statements, Commands, WH-Questions, Confirmatory question tags, Exclamations.

Examples:

Statements:

  1. I am going home.
  2. Bolanle is my older sister.
  3. I just got a call from my mum.

 

Commands:

  1. Go home now!
  2. Leave that place!
  3. Wash those plates right away!

 

WH-Questions:

  1. What is your name?
  2. Where is your father?
  3. When would your sister come back?

 

Confirmatory question tags:

  1. She isn’t here, is she?
  2. They haven’t left, have they?
  3. He hasn’t washed the car, has he?

 

Exclamations:

  1. What a day!
  2. How kind of you!
  3. This is so beautiful!

 

SUMMARY:

Intonation has to do with how we say things. The different types of intonation reflect in our speech, depending on what we are saying.

 

ASSESSMENT:

Write out ten sentences with the falling intonation

 

 

GRAMMAR: AUXILIARY VERBS

“WILL AND WOULD”

OBJECTIVES:

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Define auxiliary verbs
  • Explain the use of auxiliary verbs “will” and “would”

INTRODUCTION:

Verbs are words used to depict action or state of being. There are two major kinds of verbs, action verbs and auxiliary verbs.

Auxiliary verbs are known as helping or assisting verbs. They are used to help the main verb in a sentence to express tense, mood, or voice.

There are different forms of auxiliary verbs, they are:

  • Verb To be: Am, Is, Are, Was, Were, Been, Being
  • Verb To have: Have, Has, Had
  • Verb To do: Do, Does, Did
  • Modal Auxiliaries: Will, Would, May, Might, Can, Could, Shall, Should, Must, Ought.

 

 

AUXILIARIES “WILL” AND “WOULD”

The auxiliary verb “would” is the past tense form of the auxiliary verb “will”. They are both used for different functions in grammar. Some of their uses shall be discussed below.

WILL

  • This is used to talk about what we believe about the future

For example:

  1. We willget there on time
  2. willgo with the train.

 

  • To talk about what people want to do, or are willing to do

For example:

  1. She willwash the plates
  2. They willtravel next week.

 

  • To make promises, offers or requests

For example:

  1. willgive her the book
  2. Willyou like to work with us?
  3. We willmake the cake

 

  • In conditional statements

For example:

  1. willgo home, if she gives me the money.
  2. They willhave the meeting, if it does not rain.

 

WOULD

  • This is used to talk about the past, as it is the past tense form of “Will”.

For example:

  1. They would have cleaned the room.
  2. I would have travelled, but for the incident.

 

  • To talk about what people were willing to do in the past

For example:

  1. We told them to have a sleepover, but they wouldn’t just agree
  2. They would always go to see her

 

  • To make polite statements

For example:

  1. Would you kindly pass the bag to me?
  2. Would you sweep the room, please?

 

SUMMARY:

The auxiliary verbs “will” and “would” are used in sentences to support or help the main verbs.

ASSESSMENT:

Use the verb “will” and “would” to make five sentences each.

 

 

VOCABULARY: WORDS ASSOCIATED WITH PHOTOGRAPHY

 

We would be examining words that are associated with photography, alongside their meanings.

 

WordsMeaning
ExposureThis refers to the amount of light that gets to a camera’s sensor when taking a picture. It determines how dark or light the picture would turn out to be.
ApertureThis is the opening through which light enters the lens, into the camera.
CameraThis is a very important instrument in photography, if not the most important. A camera is what is used to take photographs.
Focal LengthThis is the distance between the sensor of the camera and the centre of the lens.
FocusThis has to do with making adjustments to the lens of a camera in order to get the desired sharpness, contrast and balance, for the object to be captured.
LensThe lens is used to bring light to a focal point.
Shutter speedThis refers to the length of time for which a camera shutter opens, to take a picture.
OverexposureThis is when the exposure value is higher than it should be.
PhotographerA photographer is a person who takes pictures of people, events, places, objects, etc with the use of a camera.
SaturationThis has to do with how intense or deep the colour of an image is.

 

 

WRITING: RECORDKEEPING

 

OBJECTIVES:

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Explain what record keeping is
  • List and explain the types of recordkeeping
  • Explain the uses of recordkeeping

INTRODUCTION:

Recordkeeping is an important part of the documentation that must be adopted by individuals and organizations. We would be examining the meaning, types and uses of record keeping.

 

Recordkeeping is the accurate storage of information, by either writing it down in journals, record books, etc or by storing it electronically in computers; files, documents, etc.

It can be used to keep track of the history of an organization, record its financial proceedings, keep track of employees’ information, etc.

Recordkeeping is necessary for the documentation of important information, for future reference.

 

TYPES OF RECORD-KEEPING

There are different types of record keeping that should be done in an organization, in order to ensure efficiency and accuracy.

  1. Administrative Recordkeeping
  2. Financial Recordkeeping
  3. Legal Recordkeeping

 

  • Administrative Recordkeeping: This is an important kind of record to keep, as it keeps you on track on how your organization is being run. It includes information about the different departments in a company, what they do, and how they contribute to the overall growth of the company. It also includes information about staff, salary, mode of operation in the organization, etc.

 

  • Financial Recordkeeping: Keeping financial records is a must-do, in every organization and even for individuals. This has to do with the process of recording transactions, income and expenditures, for accuracy, and tracking spending, in order to avoid debt. It involves petty cash bookkeeping, making financial statements and budgets, etc.

 

  • Legal Recordkeeping: This is also another important kind of record to keep in an organization. Every organization is a legal body; hence, it is subjected to the laws of the nation. So, one has to keep records of the legal information, stating the kind of company, ownership, tax payment evidence, etc.

 

USES OF RECORDKEEPING

Recordkeeping is an important aspect of every organization that must not be taken for granted. Below are some of the uses/ importance of recordkeeping.

  1. It helps to monitor the progress of your organization: Recordkeeping helps you to know how much you have progressed over the years. Without recordkeeping, one would not be able to detect how far one has progressed since there would be no tangible information to determine that.
  2. It helps for the financial understanding of your business: Keeping the financial records of your business helps you to understand how financially healthy your business is. It helps you to track your income, expenditure, profit, equity, etc.
  3. It helps you to improve your business: Knowledge is power indeed, but not only having knowledge but using the knowledge. Having a record about every aspect of your business helps you to know what is working well, and what is not working well, for you to improve on.
  4. It helps you to be more organized: Recordkeeping helps one to be organized, and know where to find important information, whenever they are needed. This brings efficiency and effectiveness to work.

 

SUMMARY:

Recordkeeping is an important aspect of an organization that keeps it running smoothly. Keen attention should be paid to it.

ASSESSMENT:

  • What is recordkeeping?
  • Mention five types of recordkeeping
  • Mention ten uses of recordkeeping

 

WEEK 7

SPEECH WORK: INTONATION

OBJECTIVE:

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Define intonation
  • State the functions of intonation
  • List and explain the different types of intonation, by identifying intonation patterns in statements, questions and commands.

 

INTRODUCTION:

Intonation is an aspect of language that is closely related to Stress. It is used to show the attitude and emotion of speakers.

 

Intonation is a variation in the pitch level of one’s voice, when speaking, or during articulation. It refers to how the voice rises and falls during a speech to communicate different meanings in expressions of different kinds.

 

FUNCTIONS OF INTONATION

  • It is used to differentiate one statement from another, in terms of its function; be it a command, statement, or command.
  • It shows the emotion and attitude of the speaker, whether they are surprised, happy, disappointed, sad, etc.
  • It can also be used to show what information is new, or already known in an utterance.

 

TYPES OF INTONATION

There are four types of intonation, which are used when speaking. They are:

  • The Rising Intonation
  • The Falling Intonation
  • The Rise-fall Intonation
  • The Fall-rise Intonation

 

  • The Rising Intonation is the kind of intonation that ends a statement, on a rising pitch. It is used in Yes/No Questions, Question tags; which are actual questions

Examples:

 

Yes/No Questions:

  1. Are you going home tomorrow?
  2. Is your mother in the house?
  3. Has she returned the book?

 

Question Tags:

  1. Your interview is tomorrow, isn’t it?
  2. The food is delicious, isn’t it?
  3. They have travelled, haven’t they?

 

  • The Falling Intonation is the kind of intonation that ends a statement on a falling pitch. It is used in Statements, Commands, WH-Questions, Confirmatory question tags, Exclamations.

Examples:

 

Statements:

  1. I am going home.
  2. Bolanle is my older sister.
  3. I just got a call from my mum.

 

Commands:

  1. Go home now!
  2. Leave that place!
  3. Wash those plates right away!

 

WH-Questions:

  1. What is your name?
  2. Where is your father?
  3. When would your sister come back?

 

Confirmatory question tags:

  1. She isn’t here, is she?
  2. They haven’t left, have they?
  3. He hasn’t washed the car, has he?

 

Exclamations:

  1. What a day!
  2. How kind of you!
  3. This is so beautiful

 

 

  • The Rise-fall Intonation: This occurs when a statement starts on a rising pitch and ends on a falling pitch. It is used for making Lists, Conditional Statements.

Examples:

 

Lists:

  1. When you get to the market, buy rice, beans, pepper, and nylon.
  2. We have these items on the shelf: Two books, a pack of pens, and four rulers.
  3. He kept the following items in the storeroom: four packs of books, a pack of pens, three school bags, and a sandal.

 

Conditional statements:

  1. If I go home, I would make my hair.
  2. If he reads well, he would pass the exams
  3. If they pay, they would be allowed to participate in the excursion.

 

  • The Fall-rise Intonation: This occurs when a statement starts on a falling pitch and ends on a rising pitch. It is used to express doubt or uncertainty.

Examples:

 

Statements that reflect doubt/ uncertainty:

  1. Perhaps we would be allowed to leave school earlier?
  2. Do you think she would do it?
  3. I doubt dad would let her travel alone.

 

SUMMARY:

Intonation has to do with how we say things. The different types of intonation reflect in our speech, depending on what we are saying.

 

ASSESSMENT:

  • Write out five sentences each, for each type of intonation

 

VOCABULARY: SPORTS

Sports refer to activities that require physical exertion and skill, to compete with another team, for the sake of entertainment.

WordsMeaning
FootballFootball is a kind of sport played between two teams of eleven players each, in which a ball is kicked around the pitch, with the aim to score in the goal post of the opponent team.
BasketballBasketball is a game that involves two teams of five players each, in which a ball is passed from hand to hand, in order to pass it through the netted hoop at the end of the basketball court.
VolleyballVolleyball is a game between two teams of six players each, in which a ball is passed by hand over a high net. The aim is to throw the ball, to land at your opponent’s area, in order to earn scores.
RefereeThis is the person who presides over a sporting event, to maintain the rules guiding the game, detect foul and give penalties for flouting any of the rules.
OffsideThis is when an attacking player is nearer to his opponent’s goal line than the ball and the second to the last opponent.
PitchThis is a place where outdoor sporting activities take place
AthleteAn athlete is a person who is skilled in sporting activities.
SpectatorsSpectators are people who watch a sporting event. They are usually fans of these sports activities.
TravellingThis occurs in basketball, when a player flouts a rule by holding the ball, and takes about three steps, without hitting the ball on the floor.
Table TennisTable Tennis is a game which is played with bats, and a ball, which is bounced on a rectangular table divided into two, by a net
HandballThis is a sport between two teams, in which a ball is passed by hand, with the aim of scoring in the opponent’s goal.

WEEK 8

GRAMMAR: AUXILIARIES

SHALL AND SHOULD

OBJECTIVES:

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Define auxiliary verbs
  • Explain the uses of auxiliary verbs “shall” and “should”

 

 

INTRODUCTION:

Verbs are words used to depict action or state of being. There are two major kinds of verbs, action verbs and auxiliary verbs.

 

Auxiliary verbs are known as helping or assisting verbs. They are used to help the main verb in a sentence to express tense mood or voice.

There are different forms of auxiliary verbs, they are:

  • Verb To be: Am, Is, Are, Was, Were, Been, Being
  • Verb To have: Have, Has, Had
  • Verb To do: Do, Does, Did
  • Modal Auxiliaries: Shall, Should, May, Might, Can, Could, Will, Would, Must, Ought.

SHALL

  • To express some rules and laws
  1. You shall not cross the road, but take the pedestrian bridge
  2. You shall not covet your neighbour’s belonging
  3. You shall not drive roughly

 

  • To speak about something that would happen in the future
  1. I shall travel tomorrow
  2. They shall be here soon
  3. She shall buy the books

 

SHOULD

  • It is used when giving an advice
  1. You should see a dentist soon.
  2. You should see him before he leaves.
  3. She should write the exam this year

 

  • To express regret over something that was not done in the past
  1. I should have prepared well for the exam
  2. He should have informed his parents
  3. They should have travelled down

 

  • It is used to ask questions
  1. Why should I meet her?
  2. When should he leave here?
  3. How should I do it?

 

  • To express conditions/ consequences
  1. Should he come now, I would pardon him.
  2. Should they go now, they would meet her.
  3. He should leave now if he wants to meet the train.

 

SUMMARY:

The modal verbs “shall” and “should” are used in expressions of different kinds.

ASSESSMENT:

Make five sentences each using the modal verbs “shall” and “should”.

 

 

 

VOCABULARY: TRANSPORTATION

Words associated with transportation would be identified and explained as follows:

Transportation is the conveying of people, animals, things, etc. from one place to another, by different means.

WordsMeaning
BusThis is a kind of vehicle used to transport people from one place to the other, by land. Examples are Cars, Buses, Tricycles.
AircraftThis is a kind of vehicle that is used to transport people and goods, from one place to the other by air. Examples are Airplane, Helicopters, Jets, etc.
TerminalThis is a place where transportation procedures are carried out, a point of transfer for passengers, and where loads are loaded and unloaded.
FerryA ferry is a vessel used to carry people from one place to the other, by water. Example: ships, boats, canoes, etc.
AirportAn airport is a place where aircraft takes off and lands from, and where air transportation procedures are carried out.
GarageThis is a place where cars and buses are parked.
RailwayA railway is a pathway, where trains pass through when moving from one place to the other.
Steering WheelA steering wheel is an instrument in vehicles that controls the direction that the vehicle turns to.
PassengerA passenger is a person that is in a vehicle, but who is not the driver.
PedestrianA pedestrian is a person that moves from one place to another on foot.
TrafficTraffic refers to a situation where buses, cars, motorcycles, pedestrian, etc. are packed on the road, and moving together, in a clustered way.
TramThis is a vehicle that runs on railways and is powered by electricity.
SubwayA subway is an underground railway system, used to transport people within urban areas.
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COMPOSITION: SPEECHWRITING

OBJECTIVES:

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Define speech writing, with its types
  • Explain the format of a speech
  • Write an opening speech for my school valedictory day ceremony

INTRODUCTION:

A speech is a piece of writing that is used to convey a message to a particular audience. There are different types of speech writing.

Speech writing is a formal kind of writing that is used to convey a message to an audience, on different occasions. It could be an opening speech, a closing remark, etc.

There are some important factors to take into consideration when writing a speech, they are:

  1. Purpose of the speech: This refers to the reason for writing the speech, or the aim it is to achieve. The purpose of a speech goes a long way in determining how it would be written, and the choice of words to be used, to achieve that. It could be to inspire, educate, entertain, etc.

 

  1. The Audience: This is another very important factor to note, in any kind of speech writing. The kind of audience would also determine the choice of words. For example, the way a speech to be read at a secondary school prize giving day would be written, would be different from the way a speech to be presented at a meeting of financial professionals, would be written.

 

  1. The event: This is also key, as it determines the kind of message that would be communicated, and written in the speech.

 

 

There are four major types of Speech Writing, such as:

  • Manuscript
  • Memorized Speech
  • Extemporaneous Speech
  • Impromptu Speech

 

  1. Manuscript: A manuscript is a kind of speech that is written down, to be read from a screen or paper. It is a kind of speech whereby the speaker prepares what to say, writes it down, and reads it directly from where it is written.

 

  1. Memorized Speech: I am sure you have memorized a poem, when in primary school, right? Memorized speech is the same as that. It has to do with preparing a written speech, then memorizing it word for word to be presented. Here, the written speech is not read from, rather, the speaker presents the already memorized speech by heart.

 

  1. Impromptu Speech: This refers to a kind of speech where one is called upon unprepared, to “just say something”. It is unplanned for, hence the name, “impromptu”.

 

  1. Extemporaneous Speech: This is the kind of speech that is usually prepared beforehand. However, in extemporaneous speeches, one does not need to read from a manuscript or memorize what to say. You only have to prepare well, get familiarized with the topic, get your points together, and speak from your heart.

 

 

FORMAT OF A SPEECH

Speech writing just like every form of formal writing has a format it follows.

  1. Introduction: Every speech starts with an introduction of the speaker, and the topic he/she is speaking on. This is an important aspect of the speech, as it sets the tone for how the entire speech would be presented. It can be captured in one paragraph.

 

  1. Body: This is where the points, which communicate the message would be presented. The body of a speech is where the most important information is included. It takes more than a paragraph.

 

  1. Conclusion: This is the last part of a speech, where one gives a conclusion of what has already been saying and brings the speech to an end.

 

AN OPENING SPEECH TO BE PRESENTED ON YOUR SCHOOL’S PRIZE-GIVING DAY

Good day, everyone. My name is Zara Rufus. I am an SSS1 student of this great school, Love-Hope High School, and I am glad to welcome you all to this great ceremony.

To start with, I would love to appreciate everyone for coming today to honour this event. We really value your presence.

In Love-Hope High School, one of our core values is excellence, and this points to why we always come top in various academic competitions across the country. And also, it is the reason why our past students have excelled, even after leaving the school, due to the good foundation already laid here.

Every year, the school puts together a prize-giving ceremony to recognize, and give awards to outstanding students, who did well in their studies, and in other extra-curricular activities, throughout the session. This serves to encourage students to put in their best in their academics, as well as strive to excel in other extra-curricular activities, as presented by the school.

As we begin this year’s ceremony, I encourage everyone to get ready for an amazing experience, as it promises to be an enlightening occasion. And so, I say have a wonderful time.

Thank you very much!

 

SUMMARY:

Speech Writing is a formal type of writing that is used in events of various types, to pass across messages. It is of different types and formats.

 

ASSESSMENT:

Write a closing speech to be presented at your school inter-house competition.

 

WEEK 9

SPEECH WORK: CONTRASTING CONSONANTS

OBJECTIVES:

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Explain what contrasting consonants are
  • Describe each of the pairs of contrasting consonants in the English language, with examples

INTRODUCTION:

Consonant sounds are sounds that are produced with a partial, or total obstruction in the flow of air, from the vocal tract. There are 24 consonant sounds in the English Language.

 

 

The English Consonant sounds are categorized in terms of voicing, place of articulation and manner of articulation. Hence, in contrasting these sounds, they would be contrasted based on the above-mentioned classifications.

 

 

CONSONANT CONTRAST IN TERMS OF VOICING

  • The /p/ and /b/ sounds have the same place and manner of articulation, which are bilabial and plosive, respectively. However, they are contrasted in terms of voicing, as the /p/ sound is voiceless, and the /b/ sound is voiced. Examples include:

/p/- Pet, Peel, Pest, Pour, Purse

/b/ – Bet, Bill, Best, Bore, Bus

  • The /t/ and /d/ sounds also have the same place and manner of articulation, which are alveolar and plosive, respectively. However, they are contrasted in terms of voicing, as the /t/ sound is voiceless and the /b/ sound is voiced. Examples include:

 

/t/- Teal, Tack, Top, Tell, Tap

/d/- Deal, Dark, Dot, Dell, Dart

 

  • The /k/ and /g/ sounds have the same place and manner of articulation, which are velar and plosive, respectively. However, they have different voicing, as /k/ is voiceless, while /g/ is a voiced sound.

/k/- Kin, BarkKill, Kid

/g/- Grin, Got, Grill, Gas

 

  • The /f/ and /v/ sounds also have the same place and manner of articulation, as labiodental and fricative, respectively. However, they have different voicing, while /f/ is voiceless, /v/ is a voiced sound.

 

/f/- Fan, Ferry, Force, Few, Infest

/v/- Van, Very, Voice, View, Invest

 

  • The /Ө/ and /ժ/ sounds have the same place and manner of articulation, like dental and fricative respectively, but they are different in terms of voicing. While /Ө/ is a voiceless sound, /ժ/ is a voiced sound.

 

/Ө/- Thing, FaithThank, Worth, Both

/ժ/- The, Bathe, Than, Bother, Worthy

 

  • The /s/ and /z/ sounds have the same manner and place of articulation, as alveolar fricative respectively, but they are different in terms of voicing. The /s/ sound is voiceless, while the /z/ sound is voiced.

 

/s/- Sleep, Sue, Set, Seal, Salt

/z/- Zip, Zoo, Zest, Zeal, Zebra

 

  • The /ʃ/ and /ʒ/ sounds also have the same place and manner of articulation, as palatal and fricative respectively, but they are different in terms of voicing, as /ʃ/ is voiceless, while /ʒ/ is voiced.

 

/ʃ/- Ship, Mission, Special, Expression

/ʒ/- Garage, Vision, Casual, Regime

 

  • The /ʧ/ and /ʤ/ sounds also have the same place and manner of articulation, which are palatal and affricative respectively. However, they are different in terms of voicing. While /ʧ/ is voiceless, /ʤ/ is a voiced sound.

 

/ʧ/- Chaff, Change, Chair, Chief

/ʤ/- Jeep, Surge, Nudge, Lodge

 

 

CONSONANT CONTRAST IN TERMS OF PLACE OF ARTICULATION

  • The /m/ /n/ and /ŋ/ are all voiced sounds, and they have the same manner of articulation, however, they have different places of articulation.

 

The /m/ sound has its place of articulation as bilabial, /n/ sound has its place of articulation as alveolar, and /ŋ/ has its place of articulation as velar.

 

/m/- Map, Master, Magic, Mess, Male

/n/- Nose, Nest, New, Nephew, Neighbor

/ŋ/- King, Sing, Sink, Link, Dancing.

 

  • The /l/ and /r/ sounds also have the same voicing, as they are both voiced sounds, and they also have the same manner of articulation, like a liquid. However, their places of articulation differ, in that, /l/ is alveolar and /r/ is palatal.

/l/- Leave, Left, Let, Lion, Legend

/r/- Rat, Rest, Round, Rice, Rough

  • The /w/ and /y/ sounds also have the same voicing, which is voiced, and the same manner of articulation which is glide. But they are different in terms of their place of articulation, which is bilabial for /w/ and palatal for /y/.

 

/w/- Watch, Warm, Well, West

/y/- Yatch, Yam, Yell, Yeast.

 

SUMMARY:

Consonant in the English language are grouped based on their manner of articulation, place of articulation, and voicing, and they can also be contrasted, in terms of these categories, as shown above.

ASSESSMENT:

Write out five words that carry each of the consonant sounds in the English language, as shown in the diagram above.

 

 

GRAMMAR: PUNCTUATION MARKS

OBJECTIVES:

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Define punctuation marks, with their types
  • Define question marks, comma and full stop, and state their uses

INTRODUCTION:

Punctuation marks are an important aspect of writing that make our writing understandable and clear. Different punctuation marks give a different meaning to a sentence.

Example:

I am going home.

I am going home?

…I am going home.

The three sentences above, though containing the same group of words, in the same arrangement, communicate different meanings, because of the different punctuation marks used with each of them.

The first sentence is a statement. The second sentence is a question. The third sentence shows that there is something before the sentence, which has been omitted.

 

Question Mark: The question mark is used to indicate questions. It can be used in the following ways:

  • At the end of a question.

Examples:

Is she your sister?

Who is at the door?

 

  • At the end of questioning statements

Examples:

She is here already?

Did they run away?

 

The Comma: The comma is often overused and abused. It is a tricky punctuation mark and should be used only when necessary. The comma is used to indicate a shorter pause, than when a full stop is used.

The comma can be used in the following ways:

  • The comma can be used to separate items in a list:

Example:

I want to buy a red shoe, two books, a bag and four dresses.

She loves plantain, fish and egg.

 

  • The comma is also used in question tags, to separate the statement from the tag.

Example:

She has gone home, hasn’t she?

He loves her, doesn’t he?

They don’t stay in Abuja, do they?

 

The Full Stop: This is also known as period and it is used to indicate a long stop then the comma is used to indicate. It can be used in the following ways:

  • The full stop is used to show that a statement has ended.

Example: I am going home today.

That is my sister.

 

  • The full stop is also used for abbreviations.

Example: Mr Femi is the new bank manager.

P.H.C.N has interrupted the power supply.

 

  • The full stop is also used in between numbers, to show decimal.

Examples:

The answer is 14.22s

 

SUMMARY:

Punctuation marks are essential for writing in the English language, and attention should be paid close to them.

ASSESSMENT:

Put the appropriate punctuation marks in the appropriate places in the following sentences.

  1. She is my brother’s friend
  2. Are they still coming today
  3. I have a book pen and ruler in my bag
  4. They have been on their way since but got stuck in traffic
  5. Has mummy returned from work

 

 

COMPOSITION: ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY

INDEED, DEMOCRACY IS BETTER THAN MILITARY RULE

Good day,

Mr Chairman

The panel of Judges,

Accurate timekeeper,

Co-debaters,

Ladies and Gentlemen.

My name is Albert Grace. I am an SSS1 student of Heights of Peace Secondary School. And I am here to support the notion that indeed, democracy is better than military rule. Before I proceed, I would love to define the keywords in this t are Democracy and Military rule.

Democracy is the government of the people, by the people and for the people, as defined by Abraham Lincoln. It is a system of government whereby, the people in a nation elect their leaders or representatives, through a voting system.

And the military rule is a system of government, where military officers rule the country, by taking over from the normal administration, to rule with force and dictatorship.

To start with, democracy is a system of government where the people have the rights to vote for their leaders, and elect their representatives, at different levels of government. While in military rule, there is no voting system, the military takes over the government with force and rules.

In a democracy, the people have their fundamental human rights intact, without them being trampled upon. But in the military system of government, the fundamental human rights of the citizens are disregarded, and they are treated with disrespect.

And finally, in a military system of government, law and decrees that cannot be revoked or checked are passed, while in democracy, bills pass through certain stages, before they can be enacted as laws.

With these points of mine, I hope I convinced you that, democracy is better than military rule.

Thank you!

 

WEEK 10

GRAMMAR: PUNCTUATION MARKS CONTINUED

OBJECTIVES:

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Define punctuation marks, and state their types
  • Define apostrophe, colon, semi-colon and inverted commas, and state their uses

INTRODUCTION:

Punctuation marks are an important aspect of writing that make our writing understandable and clear. Different punctuation marks give a different meaning to a sentence.

Example:

I am going home.

I am going home?

…I am going home.

The three sentences above, though containing the same group of words, in the same arrangement, communicate different meanings, because of the different punctuation marks used with each of them.

The first sentence is a statement. The second sentence is a question. While for the third sentence, the punctuation mark used shows that there is something before the sentence, which has been omitted.

The Apostrophe: This is a punctuation mark commonly used in writing, and it can be used in the following ways:

  • To show possession:

Examples:

This is my mother’s car

His friend’s book was stolen.

  • To show the omission of letters or contractions:

Examples:

He doesn’t go home every weekend.

It’s a whole lot of work

 

The colon: This is another punctuation mark that also helps us in writing, and it can be used in the following ways:

  • To introduce a list of items:

Examples:

The following items are in the bag: book, pens, wristwatch, and a pair of shoes.

  • It is also used within time expressions, to separate hour from minutes.

Example: It is 12:20 pm.

She was here by 06:10 pm.

Semi-colon: This is a tricky punctuation mark that should be carefully used in writing. It can be used in the following ways:

  • To join two sentences and independent clauses, to show the relationship between them.

Example:

I think we can leave now; the weather looks better.

She is here already; we would leave in ten minutes.

  • To assemble detailed or serial lists.

Examples:

The summit would take place in four locations: Lagos; Nigeria, New Delhi; India, Toronto; Canada, Beijing; China.

Inverted Commas: This is also known as quotation marks. It could either be double: “ ” or single ‘ ’. It is used in the following ways:

  • To quote a direct statement or speech made by someone, from its beginning to the end.

Examples:

“I would be travelling by air next week”, Stephen said.

“No one must leave this house” her father ordered.

  • To mark out a certain word or phrase in a sentence, to lay some emphasis on it.

Examples:

She and her father are in a “good” relationship.

SUMMARY:

Punctuation marks are essential in writing in the English Language, and attention should be paid close to them.

ASSESSMENT:

Put the appropriate punctuation marks, where they are supposed to be, in the following sentences:

  1. She cleaned Bolas room and washed the plates.
  2. Go home, she said.
  3. I will buy the following items from the market books, pens, rulers and staplers.
  4. Patrick’s mum lives in Ikeja Lagos but hails from Ikire Osun state.
  5. I have to go home now, she said.

SPELLING: WORDS THAT SOUND LIKE HOMOPHONES

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Define homophones
  • Give examples of homophones in a tabular form

INTRODUCTION:

Homophones are words that sound alike but have different meanings.

Homophones are words that sound alike but are different in terms of meaning, and sometimes in spellings. However, some homophones usually have the same sound and spelling, but different meaning.

Examples are:

WORDHOMOPHONE
RodeRoad
SceneSeen
SeeSea
AirHeir
CiteSight
DieDye
FlewFlu
BeanBin
FlourFlower
GreatGrate
HimHymn
MailMale
KnotNot
BareBear

 

SUMMARY:

The words listed above are homophones, as they have sound alike, but have different spellings and meanings.

ASSESSMENT:

Write out ten homophones and their meanings

 

 

Hope you got what you visited this page for? The above is the lesson note for English for SS1 class. If you have any questions as regards English lesson note For SS1 class, kindly send them to us via the comment section below and we shall respond accordingly as usual.

 

 

 

 

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