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Government Lesson Note for SS1 (First Term) 2024

Government lesson note for SS1 First Term is now available for free. The State and Federal Ministry of Education has recommended unified lesson notes for all secondary schools in Nigeria, in other words, all private secondary schools in Nigeria must operate with the same lesson notes based on the scheme of work for Government.

Government lesson note for SS1  First Term has been provided in detail here on

Government Lesson Note for SS1 (First Term) [year] 1

For prospective school owners, teachers, and assistant teachers, Government lesson note is defined as a guideline that defines the contents and structure of Government as a subject offered at SS level. The lesson note for Government for SS stage maps out in clear terms, how the topics and subtopics for a particular subject, group works and practical, discussions and assessment strategies, tests, and homework ought to be structured in order to fit in perfectly, the approved academic activities for the session.

To further emphasize the importance of this document, the curriculum for Government spells out the complete guide on all academic subjects in theory and practical. It is used to ensure that the learning purposes, aims, and objectives of the subject meant for that class are successfully achieved.

Government Lesson note for SS1 carries the same aims and objectives but might be portrayed differently based on how it is written or based on how you structure your lesson note. Check how to write lesson notes as this would help make yours unique.

The SS1 Government lesson note provided here is in line with the current scheme of work hence, would go a long way in not just helping the teachers in carefully breaking down the subject, topics, and subtopics but also, devising more practical ways of achieving the aim and objective of the subject.

The sudden increase in the search for SS1 Government lesson note for First Term is expected because every term, tutors are in need of a robust lesson note that carries all topics in the curriculum as this would go a long way in preparing students for the West African Secondary Examination.

This post is quite a lengthy one as it provides in full detail, the Government-approved lesson note for all topics and sub-topics in Government as a subject offered in SS1.

Please note that Government lesson note for SS1 provided here for First Term is approved by the Ministry of Education based on the scheme of work.

I made it free for tutors, parents, guardians, and students who want to read ahead of what is being taught in class.

SS1 Government Lesson Note (First Term) 2024


Wks Meaning and scope of the subject Matter

1&2(i) Government as an institution of the State

  1. ii) Government as an Art or process.

iii) Government as an Academic field of study

  1. iv) importance of studying Government .


3 i) The state and its Features

  1. ii) The Nation and its Features

iii) The Society

  1. iv) The Difference/Relationship between state, Nation and the Society.

Basic concepts of Government

  1. Power, Definition, forms of power
  2. i) The Acquisition and Exercise of power
  3. ii) Authority: Meaning, sources, Types, Differences between power & Authority
  4. i) Legitimacy: meaning, Factors of Determining legitimacy.
  5. ii) Sovereignty: meaning, Characteristics, Types, Location and Limitation

6&7 i) Democracy: Definition, Features, Types, Merits and Demerits, condition Necessary for a successful operation of Democracy

  1. ii) Political culture: Meaning, component Determinant

iii) Political socialization: Definition & Agent

  1. i) Communism: Definitions, Characteristics.
  2. ii) Socialism: Definition, features, Merits & Demerits and difference between Capitalism and Socialism.
  3. i) Communalism: meaning and features
  4. ii) Feudalism: Definition, Features, Merits & Demerits

iii) Fascism: meaning, features

  1. iv) Totalitarianism: Definition & features
  2. v) Oligarchy

10&11 Unitary System of Govt

Federal system of Government

12 & 13 Revision and Examination


Week: 1st

Class: SS I

Lesson title: Government as an Institution of the State

Ref. Books: Ibiyemi Oyeneye Round up Government for Senior Secondary Certificate, Longman Publishers Lagos 2006, Pp. 1-6.

Lesson Objectives:  By the end of the lesson, the students should be able to.

i.Define Government as an Institution of the state

ii.Government as an act or process

iii.Government as an academic field of study



Government is the machinery of the state in which the state apparatus is being run.  Government is therefore an institution through which the will of the state is formulated, expressed and realized for the attainment of its goals, through its three arms namely: Legislature, Executive and the Judiciary.  The main organs involved in this process are the Legislature who makes laws, the executive implement the laws and the Judiciary interpret the laws.


Government as a process

Through government, rules and regulations are made, interpreted, implemented and enforced.  Through these, the activities of the society are regulated.


Functions of Government

1.Law making

2.Maintenance of law and order through the police force and law courts.

3.Protection of lives and property from external aggression.

4.Provision of employment opportunities

5.Maintenance of external relations with other nations.  Like the ECOWAS, AU, UNO, participation in international conferences and signing of treaties with other states.


The importance of studying Government

1.The study of Government enables an average citizen to participate more effectively in the government of his country, and correctly assess political events and reacts to them.

2.The study of Government helps to provide solutions to our political problems

3.We study government in order know our rights, duties and obligations.

4.The knowledge of government is very useful to draftsmen, and to members of the legislature, the executive and Judiciary.

5.Through the study of Government, its relationship with other branches of knowledge – history, economics, sociology, psychology and anthropology is better appreciated.


Week: 2nd

Class: SS I

Lesson title: Government as an academic field of study

Sub-title: The state and its Features

Ref. Books: Ibiyemi Oyeneye Round up Government for Senior Secondary Certificate, Longman Publishers Lagos 2006, Pp. 2-6.

Lesson Objectives:  By the end of the lesson, the students should be able to define

i.A state and state its features

ii.The nation and its features

iii.The society as well.



A state may be defined as politically body of people occupying a definite geographical territory with an organized government entirely free from external control and with coercive power to secure obedience from her citizens and others. Nigeria, Togo, USA, China are States.

Characteristics of a State

1.Population: For a state to exist, there must be a given number of people which has no minimum or maximum that will occupy it.

2.Territory: a State must possess a definite territory which has limit to its size. This territory must have clear cat boundaries that will separate it from other states.

3.Government: A state must have machinery called government that will steer its affairs.  The existence and survival of a state are maintained by the government.

4.Sovereignty: A State must have the supreme power to enable it make and enforce laws. Such as Sovereign state must be free from external control.

5.Permanence: A State is relatively permanent.


Nevertheless, a nation possesses all the characteristics possessed by the State except sovereignty.  For a nation to attain the status of statehood, it must gain independence and therefore have supreme power to enable it make and enforce its own laws.


A state in spite of its differences in national historical origins, common language, culture, common ethnicity, common religious belief of its people and still characterized by a strong sense of national unity is described as a nations state. E.g USA and Switzerland.



Society includes every kind and degree of relationship entered into by men, whether orgaised or unorganized, direct or indirect, conscious or unconscious, cooperative or otherwise.


Relationship between State and Society

1.Government is established by the state to regulate and hold society together.

2.State is concerned with social relationships expressed through government society suggests many social relationships which may not be expressed through the state.

3.Society may be organized or unorganized co-operative or antagonistic, while state must be organized for law and under a government.

4.A State must have a definite boundary and sovereignty.  These attributes are not attributes of a society.


Government as an Academic Field of Study

Government viewed as an academic field of study is a social science subject taught in many Schools and colleges – including institutions of higher learning called Political Science.

1.These include: Public Administration: This studies the methods and means of managing a State.

2.International relations: This studies relations between nations as well as the socio-political and economic environments surrounding or governing such relations i.e Foreign policy e.t.c.

3.Political Theory: this is the study of descriptions and explanations of the origin, nature, characteristics, and objectives of human organisatios.

4.Comparative Politics: this studies different government, analyzing their similarities and differences.

5.Local Government: this relates to the study of government at the local level – created by an act of parliament to make laws and provide services of a local nature for which it is created.


The study of government now includes economics, sociology, history, philosophy, psychology, anthropology, Mathematics, as a result is now called Political Science involving research, the use of statistics and computer.

Week: 3rd

Class: SS I

Lesson title: Forms of Power

Sub-title: Types of Authority

Ref. Books: J. U Anyaele, comprehensive Government for senior Secondary Schools, Johnson Publishers, Lagos 2003 pp 10-15

Recommended:  Government Lesson Note for SS1 (First Term) 2024

Resource Material: Textbook, Internet, Magazines  e.t.c

Lesson Objectives:  By the end of the lesson, the students should be able to define

i.Define power

ii.State the forms of power

iii.State sources of power

iv.List sources of political authority.



Power may be defined as the ability to control the actions of others through the possession of means of sanction.


Forms of Power

I.Political Power: This type of power which resides in the three organs of government is derived from the constitution.

II.Physical Power: This type of power which is also known as naked power involves the use of force to compel obedience.

III.Economic power: This type of power involves the use of economic resources at a person’s disposal in controlling the actions of others e.g Aliko Dangote.

IV.Military power: This type of power is exercised by those who control the instrument of suppression like the armed forces.


Sources of power

1.The constitution: The supremacy of the constitution makes it authoritative for the electorate to exercise political authority through the ballot box.

2.Through inheritance:  this is a common means of acquiring traditional power

3.Position of Authority: One’s position of authority can confer some elements of power on the person.

4.Though coercion:  Power can be obtained through the use of force especially the military.

5.The use of Charisma:  Many people acquire power through their personal influence and capacity to inspire devotion and enthusiasm, charismatic attribute goes with persuasion.



Authority may be defined as the power or right to give orders and enforce obedience.


Sources of Political Authority

1.Tradition Authority: This source of authority is derived from hereditary families base on the existing customs and tradition. E.g Oba of Lagos.

2.Legal Authority: This type of authority is derived from a body of rules and regulations governing a given society e.g the constitution.

3.Charismatic Authority: The source of this type of authority is the exceptional personal characteristics.


Types of Authority

1.Political Authority: This is the power given on a group of individuals by a written constitution to make decisions and enforce obedience.

2.Coercive Authority; This is the type of authority involving the use of force

3.Delegate Authority: This is the authority conferred on a subordinate to exercise certain powers.

4.Traditional Authority: This is power legitimized and defined by customs and tradition.

5.Legal Rational Authority: This is power legitimized and defined by law and held by those who are legally qualified.



One of the differences between Power and Authority is that the exercise of Power requires some elements of force and sanction while authority is exercised without the application of force.


Punishment that goes with power is severe e.g death penalty while the possessor of authority can only discipline and cannot order the death of a citizen.


The main attribute of authority is legitimacy; power may not be legitimate e.g military power.

Lastly, power cannot be delegated while authority can.



Week: 4th

Class: SS I

Lesson Title: Legitimacy

Sub-lesson: Sovereignty

Ref. Books: J.  U. Aboyade, Comprehensive Government for Senior Secondary Schools, Johnson Publishers, Lagos 2003 pp. 11-15.

Instructional Material: Textbook, Chart, Internet e.t.c

Lesson Objectives:  By the end of the lesson, the students should be able to

i.Define Legitimacy

ii.State the factors that affect legitimacy

iii.Define Sovereignty.

iv.List the characteristics of Sovereignty.

Building materials: The students are familiar with knowledge of Popular participation.



A legitimate government is one that is constitutionally elected and is acceptable to the populace.


Factors that determine Legitimacy

1.Popular participation: For a political system to be accorded legitimacy, the various interest groups such as political parties, pressure groups, etc must be allowed to take part.

2.Popular Support: A government is said to be legitimate if it receives the popular support of the citizens.

3.Good Government: people accord legitimacy to a government which meets up their expectations of good governance.

4.Foreign Diplomacy: The foreign policy adopted by a government of a country determines the legitimacy other nations will accord to such government.

5.Leadership: A leader that performs creditably well in office will make people to accept his regime as a legitimate one.



Sovereignty may be defined as the absolute power of the state to exercise supreme legal authority over its own affairs within its territory without any form of external control.  Jean Bodin introduced sovereignty to political theory.


Characteristics of Sovereignty

1.Absoluteness: The modern sovereign state issues orders which are binding on all citizen and associations within the territory and receives orders from none.

2.Permanence: Sovereignty is permanent as long as the state exists.

3.Indivisibility: the powers of sovereignty which are supreme, absolute, final and coercive cannot be divided or shared.

4.Comprehensiveness: The power of sovereignty is wide in scope and all embracing which is binding on all persons or groups within the territorial jurisdiction.

5.Absence of Foreign control: The power of a sovereign state is supreme within its territorial jurisdiction without any foreign control.


Types of Sovereignty

1.Legal Sovereignty: This is the power to make and enforce laws in a given state.

2.Political Sovereignty: The people exercise this power through the ballot box by voting for those they want to delegate to power.

3.Defacto Sovereignty: This is the sovereignty acquired by force e.g Armed Forces Ruling Council by General Ibrahim Babangida.

4.DeJure Sovereignty: This is sovereignty acquired in accordance with the laws of the land as against the use of force.

5.Internal Sovereignty: This is the supreme power of the State to make and enforce laws within its territorial are of jurisdiction.



1.In a Unitary Government: In a unitary System of government, it is possible to locate sovereignty in the central government or authority.

2.Location in a Federal State: In a Federal system of government, Sovereign power is constitutionally shared between the central and state governments.

3.Location in the Electorate: Sovereign power according to professor A. V Dicey can be located in the electorate.

4.Location in a Monarch: In Britain, sovereignty can be located in the Queen in Parliament.

5.Location in a Military Regime: The power of AFRC is supreme or unlimited and it acts as both the executive and legislative organs of government.



1.Membership of International Organizations: The existence of international which many nations belong, has placed serious limitations to the sovereignty of such nations e.g. UNO, ECOWAS etc.

2.The influence of Powerful Nations: Powerful nations like USA and Russia have a lot of influence on the external sovereignty of the smaller and weaker nations.

3.The Electorate can check the excesses of the government through elections.

4.Type of Governmental Power: Sovereignty is best exercised under a unitary government than in a Federal and Confederal systems.

5.Customs and Traditions: The customs and tradition of the people impose serious limitation on the sovereignty of the state.


Lesson Title: Achievements of the O. A. U

Sub-lesson: Failures of O. A. U

Ref. Books: J. U. Aayade, Comprehensive Government for Senior Secondary Schools, Johnson Publishers, Lagos 2003 pp. 234-236.

Lesson Objectives:  By the end of the lesson, the students should be able to

i.State the achievements of O. A. U

ii.Account for the failures of O. A. U

iii.The assembly of Heads of State and Government.



1.Promotion of Unity: One of the achievements of the O. A. U  since its establishment in 1963, is that it has promoted the unity and solidarity among various African States.

2.Settlement of Disputes: The organization established an organization known as the commission of Mediation, Conciliation and Arbitration, specifically for the settlement of disputes between member states. E.g. Ethiopia and Somalia. No thanks to Nigeria and Cameroun over Bakassi Peninsular.

3.Visit and Exchange of Ideas: OAU has made possible the inter-African Heads of State visit and exchange of ideas.

4.Eradication of Colonialism: the OAU has succeeded in carving a niche for herself in history by contributing towards Liberating of Southern Africa where Angola, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Namibia are free from white minority rule.

5.Economic Achievements: the organizations has tried to achieve economic co-operation and integration among member States.

6.Establishment of African Development Bank which has financed and given loan to member states to carry out developmental projects.



1.Financial problem is one of the major problems hindering the performance of this continental body.

2.Political Instability has disrupted unrest among member states i.e incessant coup detats. No thanks to recent palace coup in Burkina Faso and Boko-Haram insurgence in west and central Africa as well.

3.Lack of standing Army: The organization up to her 26th year of inception, has no standing army.  Thanks to china that volunteered 800 standing Army to AU this year.

4.Language barrier tend to slow down any effective communication among member states. Thus leading to its failure in many fields.

5.Foreign influence: The economic dependence on foreign powers by member nations has perpetuated foreign influence on OAU.



A.The Assembly of Heads of State and Government

Recommended:  Government Lesson Note for SS2 (Second Term) 2024

B.The Council of Ministers

C.The General Secretariat

D.The Commission of Mediation, Conciliation and Arbitration.


The Assembly of Heads of State and Governments

This organ comprises the Heads of State and Government of each member state or their accredited representatives.  It is the highest or supreme organ of OAU and it meets once in a year.



  1.  The Assembly discusses matters of common interest to Africa.

2.The Assembly appoints the Secretary General of the organization

3.It considers reports from the Secretariat and the secretary-General.

4.It settles important political problems affecting member states.

5.It decides on the admission of a new member-state to the organization.



The Council consists of Foreign Ministers or designated ministers of member-states. The council meets twice a year.



1.The council prepares the agenda for the meeting of the Assembly of Heads of State and Government.

2.It approves the budgets of the organization.

3.It implements the decision of the Assembly.

4.It co-ordinates inter-African co-operation as directed by the Assembly.

5.It directs and controls the specialize commissions and agencies.



The General Secretariat is the administrative headquarters of OAU and it is located at the organization’s headquarters in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

The Secretary-General holds office for a three year period and may be re-elected.


The first Secretary-General of OAU was Dialo Telli (Guinea) 1963-1972, followed by Nzo Ekangaki (Cameroun) 1972-1974. William Eteki Mboumoua (Cameroun), 1974-1978, Edem Kodjo (Togo) 1978-1983, Peter Onu (Nigeria) 1983-1985 (Interim), Ide Onmarou (Niger) 1985-1989, Salim Ahmed Salim (Tanzania) 1989-2001, Amara Essy (Ivory Coast) was the last Secretary-General of defunct OAU.



Week: Five

Class: SS I

Lesson title: Democracy


Ref. Books: J. U. Anyaele, Comprehensive Government for Senior Secondary Schools, Johnson Publishers, Lagos pp 15-17

Lesson Objectives:  By the end of the lesson, the students should be able to

i.Define Democracy

ii.List its Types

iii.States its features

iv.List its Merits and Demerits

Building materials: The students are familiar with democracy.





Democracy is a system of government based on popular consent.  Abraham Lincoln in his 1863 Gettysburg address defined democracy “as the government of the people by the people and for the people”



1.Direct /Classical Democracy: This is a form of democracy where the right to make political decisions is exercised directly by the whole body of citizens, acting under procedures of majority rule.

2.Modern/Representative Democracy: Citizens exercise the right to make political decisions, not in person, but through representatives chose by the people and accountable to them.

3.Liberal/Constitutional Democracy: Powers of the majority are exercised with in a framework of constitutional restraints designed to guarantee the minority in the enjoyment of certain individual or collective rights.

4.Social or Economic Democracy: This type of democracy tends to minimize social and economic differences, especially difference arising out of the unequal distribution of private property.


Features of Democracy

1.Regular and Periodic elections.

2.Equality before the law.

3.Existence of party systems.

4.Free and fair elections

5.There must be an independent Judiciary

6.And a free press.


Merits of Democracy

1.It promotes political participation: it encourages citizens to be involved in their government and politics.

2.The electorates are given the opportunity to elect leaders of their choice.

3.There is political stability through periodic elections.

4.Decision making: Persuasion and argument are used in making decisions rather than violent means.

5.The Rule of Law: Democracy promotes equality of persons, protection of their possessions and their fundamental human rights.


Demerits of Democracy

1.The representative of the people may be representing their own interest.

2.Rule of Ignorance: Democracy does not pay attention to quality but quantity. Votes are not weighed but are counted.

3.Elections are often manipulated to favour self-centered and irresponsible representatives through thuggery and the use of money.

4.It is very expensive to operate.

5.Inadequate political education may make voters to collect money for their votes.


Conditions necessary for the success of Democracy

1.Economic development and equal opportunities for all

2.Literacy and political education

3.Efficient and dynamic leadership

4.Open heart society

5.Tolerance of divergent views.


7.Explain the pillar of democracy




Class SS1

Age: 13years

Subject: Government

Lesson Title: Political socialization

Sub-lesson: Political culture

Ref Book: J. U. Anyaele, Comprehensive Johnson publishers, Lagos 2003 p.14 lesson objectives: By the end of the lesson, the students should be able to

i.Define political socialization

ii.List Agent of political socialization

iii.Define political culture

iv.State determinant of political culture

Building materials the students are familiar with democracy.


Political socialization refers to process by which the citizens are educated on the values, attitudes and beliefs of the political system



  1. The Family: Children from politically conscious families tend to be more politically aware and interested in polities
  2. The school: Educational institution play significant role in the political socialization of the citizens of a country
  3. The peer groups the peer group of an individual tends to socialize the individual politically
  4. Political parties educate their members and the public through their manifestoes and campaign
  5. The mass media: The mass media include radio, news papers, television and magazines people are socialized through what they read, listen to and watch in the mass media



  1. Cognitive orientation this concerns the beliefs and knowledge people have with regard to the political system
  2. Evaluative orientation: This refers to the extent the people can evaluate or critically assess the functioning of their political system
  3. Affective orientation: This concerns the feelings of the people towards the political system



  1. Different ethnicity: The belief system of each ethnic group has major impact on the people’s political culture, thus bringing about the differences of political culture
  2. Historical developments: The course of historical development in a particular society determines the attitudes, values and beliefs in polities. Thanks to French revolution in the 18th century that revolutionized the world till today
  3. The impact of colonialism European colonial legacy has tremendous influence on new states in Africa, Latin America and Asia
  4. Socio-economic structure: Urban and industrialized societies have higher educational standards and are very complex, thus, people participate in polities than the rural societies that are rather conservative
  5. Political instability: Constant instability in the political system bring about disaffection by the populace, this invariably affects their political value and attitudes in politics




Subject: Government

Lesson title: Capitalism

Sub-lesson: Merits and dements of capitalism

Ref Book: J.U. Anyaele, comprehensive Government for senior secondary schools p 18

Lesson Objectives: By the end of the lesson, the students should able to:

(i) Define capitalism

(ii) List merits of capitalism

(iii) State the demerits of capitalism

(iv) Define totalitarianism

Building materials: The students are familiar with political culture in the past


Capitalism may be define as a political/economic system in which all means of production are owned and controlled by private individuals and in which the economic activity of government is at a minimum e.g. USA, NIGERIA, New Zealand, Japan are capitalist countries.


Features of capitalism

  1. Private ownership and control of all means of production
  2. Freedom of choice to consumers
  3. Profit making is the guiding principle
  4. Labour is regarded as a marketable commodity
  5. Competition which leads to economic rivalry between one firm, consumer etc and another.



  1. Capitalism is self regulating
  2. It encourages hard work
  3. Capitalism encourages faster economic development
  4. The system creates form for effective use of talents
  5. It encourages economic competition among producers and consumers



  1. Capitalism is utterly exploitative
  2. It encourages few rich individuals at the expense of the majority
  3. Inequitable distribution of income
  4. profit-making is the driving force at the expense of human life
  5. Capitalism creates job insecurity unemployment



Totalitarianism may be defined as a form of government in which one supreme authority controls everything and where there is no opposition, Nazist Germany, Benito Mussolini-Fascist Italy in 1922 and former USSR under Joseph Stalin



i.Supreme authority that controls everything

ii.Absence of all forms of opposition

iii.State control of mass media

iv.The use of force and terror in enteric the will of the state and its rulers

v.Absence of the rule of law



Fascism may be defined as the philosophy, principle and organization of the aggressive nationalist and anti-communist dictatorship under Benito Mussolini, Italy in 1922.



1.Fascism encourages aggressive nationalism

2.It is an anti-communist movement

3.Fascism condemns both capitalism and socialism

4.It glorifies war which according to fascists will lead eventually to peace

5.It rejects God’s law and religion in its entirety



Nazism as a political ideology belief in idealism and the superiority of the German race rather than an individual

Nazism was practiced by Adolf Hitler in 1933 to 1945 in Germany



1.The leader is always right and he controls all power of government

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2.There is the existence of only one political party e.g. the Nazist political party

3.Government controls the economy centrally

4.Opposition is not allowed

5.Government owns and controls mass media


Strategies and activities

Activity 1: The teacher revises the previous lesson with the students

Activity 2: He defines capitalism and state its features

Activity 3: students suggest demerits of capitalism

1.Define political culture

(b)   What are the determinants of political culture

  1.     What is political socialization

(b)    What are the agents of political socialization?

Wrap up: He summarizes the lesson and give note to the students

Ticket out: Write 3 merits and 2 demerits of capitalism

Moral lesson: We cannot live in isolation

The world is a global village. Always be your brother keeper




Subject: Government

Class: SS1

Topic: Feudalism

Sub-topic: Communalism

Ref-Book: R.E Aiyede Melrose government for senior secondary school 1



This is a primitive system of government and ecomomic system based mainly on hierarchical order of ownership of land in the 11th an 14th century medieval Europe



  1.   Feudalism is based mainly on hierarchical order of ownership of land

2.Ownership of land is vested in the king or monarch or emperor

3.The land users or serfs hold land or fief in return for the services they render to their lords or kings

4.The land owners or lords are duty bound to protect the serfs

5.The vassal keeps possession of land as long as he performs his feudal duties



1.It fostered among the big landlords self-reliance and love of personal independence

2.It instituted orderliness and avoided total chaos

3.The feudal system encourages decentralization




1.Distingeration of the state i.e. the absence of a strong national government could give room to anarchy

2.Feudalism is an exploitative master servant relationship

3.Loyalty and obedience is not to the government but to the land owner



Communalism refers to a system of collective ownership of property and co-operation among members of a community in the execution of developmental projects. Julius Nyerere of Tanzania is a typical example



1.Collective ownership of property

2.The system ownership of property communal societies

3.No member of the communal society is allowed to own private land

4.Members are economically and socially self-sufficient in their needs

5.The community is granted the widest degree of autonomy with distinct identity



1a Define feudalism

(b) State five features of feudalism

2a Define communalism

(b) What are the distinct features of communalism?




Subject: Government

Class: SS1

Topic: Communism

Sub-topic: Socialism

Duration: 40 minutes


Communism may be define as an economic system and a system of government in which the means of production and distribution are totally controlled by the state (government)



1.Total ownership of means of production and distribution by the state

2.Absence of classes i.e. classless society

3.The use of force in achieving communal goal

4.One-party dominance in a communist state

5.Distribution of resources to citizens according to their needs and ability



Socialism may be define as a political/economic system in which all means of production and distribution are collectively owned and controlled by the state (the government) former soviet union, Bulgaria, China Poland are examples of communist state



1.State owns and control all the means of production

2.It is democratic in nature

3.Absence of economic rivalry among producers on one hand and consumers on the other hand

4.Goods and services are not produced mainly to yield profits but to satisfy the needs of the citizens

5.All factors of produces enough goods and services to meet peoples want.



1.One of the merits of socialism is that it leads to equitable distribution of resources

2.Socialism caters for the interest of all citizens

3.Socialism creates no room for hoarding

4.Socialism ensures job security

5.Socialism is democratic in nature



1.One of the arguments against socialism is that it suppresses individual initiatives

2.It would be recalled that socialism makes people lazy and unenterprising

3.Socialism is not self-regulating and self-functioning

4.Socialism does not economic taster economic development

5.Absence of economic competition in a socialist economic system lowers the quality of goods produced




  1. Allows free enterprise and market economy directed by the forces of demand and supply Has a centrally planned economy
  2. Breeds unequal distribution of wealth Aims at reducing great inequalities of wealth and opportunity
  3. Allows private or individual ownership of the factors of production Regards factors of production as publicly or collectively owned
  4. Economic activities are duplicated. This leads to competition and waste Economic activities are not duplicated because of central planning
  5. The objective of capitalism is profit maximization Objective of socialism is welfare of the people.


Review question

1.Would you recommend socialism as an economic system for Nigeria?



Subject: Government

Class: SS1

Topic: Oligarchy

Sub-topic: Unitary system of government

Duration: 40minutes



Oligarchy may be define as government ruled by few privileged and powerful people



1)Aristocracy: This is a form of oligarchic government ruled by few persons of the highest social rank known as the nobles

2)Plutocracy: This refers to government controlled by few rich and powerful group

3)Military rule: This is government controlled by men in khaki uniform called soldiers

4)Gerontocracy: This is a form of government by a group of old people

5)Theocracy: This is a form of government controlled by priests or a priestly class



A unitary system of government may be defined as one in which all government powers are concentrated in the hands of a single authority or central government.


This single authority does not share government powers with any other body but can delegate powers to other subordinate bodies. Britain Italy, Belgium, Ethiopia adopts unitary system of government.



1.All governmental powers are concentrated in the hands of a single authority

2.It adopts a unitary constitution

3.The legislature can alter the powers and boundaries of the various units or regions

4.The central government is the only source form which power emanates

5.Parliamentary supremacy is a prominent feature.


1.Size of the country

2.Absence of ethnic differences

3.Lack of fear of domination

4.Common language and culture

5.Absence of minority groups



1.Stronger and stable government as citizens show loyalty to one central government

2.There is reduction in running the cost of government

3.Quicker decisions are made

4.There is promotion of national unity

5.It operates flexible constitution



1.It encourage dictatorship

2.The central government is overburdened

3.Government is kept far away from the people unlike federalism

4.It leads to domination of minority groups

5.It does not encourage wider representation


Review question

1a Define oligarchy

(b) State forms of oligarchy

2a Define Unitary system of government

(b) What are the factors of unitary government?

(c) Account for the factors that gave rise to the adoption of unitary government or

(d) List 3 merits and 3 demerits of unitary government



Class: SS1

Topic Federalism

Sub-topic: Reasons for Adopting Federalism

Duration: 40minutes



A federal system of government may be defined as one in which governmental

Powers that exist in the country are shared between a central government that

Represents the whole country and government of component regions. Nigeria,

USA, Brazil and India are countries that practiced federalism.



1.Division of government powers between the central and component governments of the states.

2.Adoption of a  written constitution

3.Supremacy of the central government

4.Existence of bicameral legislature.

5.Existence of Supreme Court for judicial interpretation and review.



1.Fear of domination

2.Ethnic difference

3.The size of the country is too large

4.To bring government near to the people

5.To create more employment opportunities.



1.It ensures political unity

2.It brings faster development

3.It brings government nearer to the people

4.It allays fears of domination

5.It protects the interest of the minority groups




1.It is expensive to operate

2.It create weak centre

3.Problem of wealth sharing

4.It causes census problems

5.It leads to election pigging and violence



1a) Define federal system of government

  1. b) What are the features of federalism?
  2. c) Account for the factors that gave rise to federalism
  3. d) List 3 merits and 3 demerits of federalism.

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