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Government Lesson Note for SS1 (First Term) 2023

Civic Education lesson note for SS1 First Term is now available for free. The State and Federal Ministry of Education has recommended unified lesson notes for all secondary schools in Nigeria, in other words, all private secondary schools in Nigeria must operate with the same lesson notes based on the scheme of work for Civic Education.

Civic Education lesson note for SS1  First Term has been provided in detail here on

Government Lesson Note for SS1 (First Term) [year] 1

For prospective school owners, teachers, and assistant teachers, Civic Education lesson note is defined as a guideline that defines the contents and structure of Civic Education as a subject offered at SS level. The lesson note for Civic Education for SS stage maps out in clear terms, how the topics and subtopics for a particular subject, group works and practical, discussions and assessment strategies, tests, and homework ought to be structured in order to fit in perfectly, the approved academic activities for the session.

To further emphasize the importance of this document, the curriculum for Civic Education spells out the complete guide on all academic subjects in theory and practical. It is used to ensure that the learning purposes, aims, and objectives of the subject meant for that class are successfully achieved.

Civic Education Lesson note for SS1 carries the same aims and objectives but might be portrayed differently based on how it is written or based on how you structure your lesson note. Check how to write lesson notes as this would help make yours unique.

The SS1 Civic Education lesson note provided here is in line with the current scheme of work hence, would go a long way in not just helping the teachers in carefully breaking down the subject, topics, and subtopics but also, devising more practical ways of achieving the aim and objective of the subject.

The sudden increase in the search for SS1 Civic Education lesson note for First Term is expected because every term, tutors are in need of a robust lesson note that carries all topics in the curriculum as this would go a long way in preparing students for the West African Secondary Examination.

This post is quite a lengthy one as it provides in full detail, the Civic Education-approved lesson note for all topics and sub-topics in Civic Education as a subject offered in SS1.

Please note that Civic Education lesson note for SS1 provided here for First Term is approved by the Ministry of Education based on the scheme of work.

I made it free for tutors, parents, guardians, and students who want to read ahead of what is being taught in class.

SS1 Civic Education Lesson Note (First Term) 2023














Week 1

Topic: Introduction to Civic Education


  • Meaning and Needs for Civic Education
  • Objectives/Reasons for Civic Education in Schools
  • Importance of Civic Education/Agents of Civic Education

Meaning and Needs for Civic Education

Civic education was coined from citizenship education, which simply means an educational and learning activities specifically meant to create awareness, teach right values, right attitudes and behaviour that are acceptable to the society where individual lives.

It is therefore a types of educational and learning activities to create awareness in students at all levels of education (both informal and formal)

Objectives/Reasons for Civic Education in Schools

  1. To teach right attitudes: students must understand what right attitudes and wrong attitudes are. For example laziness, truancy, bad gang, smoking etc. are bad attitudes
  2. Encouragement of good citizenship: a good citizen is someone who contribute positively towards his/her community growth and national growth.
  3. Disagreement of bad and unholy behaviour: bad behaviour such as indecent dressing, sagging, cheating in examination, stealing, bad group and other should be discouraged and do away with.
  4. To teach good leadership and followership: leaders are mirror of the society, a good leader therefore should be someone who seeks at all times and work hard towards solving his/her followers’ problems. A good follower is someone who is hardworking and performs his/her expected duties and obligations to the state and community where he/she resides.
  5. To encourage the spirit of friendship and cooperation: ‘United we stand, divided we fall’. The spirit of friendship, cooperation, harmonious relationship, religious tolerance among others are keys towards individual, community and national development.


  1. Civic education is necessary towards proper upbringing of an individual.
  2. Civic education is essential for self-reliant, self-growth and indigenous individual.
  3. It enhances individual growth, thereby encouraging nations development and rapid progress
  4. It encourages peaceful co-existence among people of diverse nationality like indigent.
  5. It encourages good leadership and followership.


  1. Family: it is often said that ‘charity begins at home’. Family is the first agent of socialization and the first agent to educate the child on ‘do and don’t in the society. The family is expected to teach the child right values, positive attitudes, hard work, sincerity, faithfulness, thankfulness among others.
  2. The community members: community members consist of the male and female adults members of the community. They are the best position to further direct the child towards a right direction in the community for stronger development of the community in particular and the nation at large. A well-disciplined and cultured individual is said to be the ‘child of the community’ whereas a failure, uncultured and undisciplined individual belongs to his or her family.
  3. The religious bodies: the African traditional religion, Islam and Christianity have a major role of morality teaching and training in the society. It is expected that the religious organizations should make man a complete human being. It is a moral obligation of the religious organization initiate children and adults into a religious belief. Therefore, the balance combination of good academic works in schools and sound morals with the fear of God would make a complete man because it is said that ‘the fear of God is beginning of wisdom’.
  4. The school: schools at all level are designed to teach, train, educate, socialize among other individual to become a complete human being. Schools help to transfer susceptible societal values to learners (both young and adults) through teaching and learning process. The school is the agent of socialization through which the child first acquires organized learning experience.
  5. The mass media: both print and electronic media are agents of civic education because through various media channels a learner and citizens interacts with the happenings not only in the immediate environment but the global world. In fact the media has made the world a global village. For example on both radio and television stations, scheduled hours for awareness creation are on air.

Test and Exercises

1.The following are the reasons for teaching civic education in Nigeria except

(a) to create awareness

(b) to teach right values

(c) to teach right attitudes and behaviour

(d) to create dissent

2.One of these is not one of the bad attitudes civic education aims to curb

(a) laziness

(b) overeating

(c) truancy

(d) bad gang

3.One of these is not an attribute of a good leader

(a) problem solver

(b) hardworker

(c) performs his duties to the state

(d) leaves his people to starve

4.A good citizen contributes ______ towards his/her community growth and national growth

(a) profusely

(b) positively

(c) negatively

(d) plausibly

5.All these are agents of civic education except

(a) mass media

(b) family

(c) religious bodies

(d) gang members

Week 2

Topic: Values


  • Definition of Value and its Sources
  • Types of Basic Human Values
  • Kinds of Values

Meaning of value

Value can simply be defined as the worth of a thing; it is the act of considering (someone or something) to be important or beneficial.

Value is seen as the normal principles and standard which guide our interaction with people in the society. It has a way of influencing people’s behavior and attitude. Value in civic education enables us to know things that are good and beneficial to individuals and the society at large.

Types of Basic Human Values

There are many types of value which are:

1.Justice: Justice as a type of value is the quality of being just, righteous, equitable and upright. It is based on moral rightness based on ethics, nationality, law, religion and upright.

Types of justice

  • Procedural justice: This is the justice that deals with the using of fair play to decide what is to be distributed. Procedural is the idea of fairness in the processes that resolve disputes and allocate resources. One aspect of procedural justice is related to discussions of the administration of justice and legal proceedings.
  • Restorative justice: Restoration simply means putting things back as they should be. It is the process of appeasing an individual that has being betrayed or cheated through some form of restitution.
  • Retributive justice: This goes beyond restorative justice, it is a mean where by the person who is cheated seeks revenge of some sort , whereby, he can feel the satisfaction of seeing the other person suffer in the way that he had suffered.
  • Distributive justice: This deal with fairness in what people receive as income or compensation
  1. Contentment: Contentment can be defined as the state of being happy and satisfied with whatever one has. It is a value every individual in a society should possess.

Attributes of contentment

1.A contended person must be satisfied with whatever he has

2.Must be humble

3.Must not be greedy

4.Have the ability to shun envy

Importance of contentment

1.Contentment leads to blessing, peaceful and developed society.

2.It reduces the feeling of inferiority complex in people

3.It reduces or eliminates conflicts between individuals and groups in the society.

4.Lack of contentment therefore can lead to corruption, envy, theft, cheating, prostitution, greed etc

  1. Courage: Courage is the ability to do something that one know is right or good even though it can be dangerous, frightening or difficult to do. It is the quality of mind that make a person to face difficulty, danger etc without fear.

Types of courage

1.Physical courage: This involves developing physical strength, resilience and awareness; it is willingness to get things done with physical energy.

2.Moral courage: This is the ability to do what is right, irrespective of the pressure to do otherwise; it is doing the right thing especially when risks involve shame.

3.Spiritual courage: Courage to exercise one spiritual faith and live according to the tenets

Types of Value

  1. Positive value: positive value applies to things or qualities which are good, desirable or worthwhile, for example, a student who respects self, the constituted authority, seniors and even the classmate is said to have positive value. Other positive value include; gratitude, truth telling, hard work, obedience etc.
  2. Negative value: this is a direct opposite of positive value, this is a bad value, undesirable, unacceptable or worthless value that the society frown at. For example, a disobedient student is said to have negative value. Other negative values are; ingratitude, lying, theft, armed robbery, improper dressing like sagging, fraudulent acts, etc.
  3. Intrinsic value: something has intrinsic value when it is good or desirable for its own sake and in itself. For example, good music, beautiful flowers, particular dress, type of handset, type of house and other value giving satisfaction to the beholder.
  4. Instrumental or extrinsic value: this is the value that we attach to an object or something that can be used for achieving another thing. For example, a good knife, a good music, a good handset. Also, drugs can be an instrumental value because prescribed drug cures illness etc.
  5. Absolute value: they are values that are not conditioned or stick to time, place or circumstance. They are always positive, good and worthwhile. They are always refer to as eternal and universal values, they hold positive and good at all places, circumstances and at all times. Examples of such values are: trust, honesty, hard work, discipline, tolerance, obedience etc.
  6. Relative value: this type of value depends on time, place or circumstance. This means that situation and current happening will determine the direction of the affairs. For example, killing is bad and it is an act that people frown at, but what of Euthensia (mercy killing) or killing a person to save one’s life. The case of another good example of relative value.
Recommended:  Babcock University Academic Calendar 2023 Out

Test and Exercises

1.The normal principles and standard which guide our interaction with people in the society is called

(a) norms

(b) law

(c) values

(d) constitution

2.Justice, contentment and courage are all examples of

(a) basic human connection

(b) basic human instinct

(c) basic human values

(d) basic human objectives

3.Pick out the odd item out of the options below

(a) retributive justice

(b) procedural justice

(c) arrested justice

(d) restorative justice

4.The kind of value that applies to things or qualities which are good, desirable or worthwhile is known as

(a) positive value

(b) negative value

(c) intrinsic value

(d) Extrinsic value

5.A contented person displays the following attributes except

(a) satisfied with whatever he has

(b) humility

(c) not greedy

(d) envy

Week 3

Topic: Values (Cont’d)


  • Acceptable Societal Values
  • Different Individual Values and the Importance of Values
  • Opportunities to defend Oneself and Factors that Promote good Value System

Acceptable Societal Value

Ordinarily value means belief about what is right and wrong and what is important in life. Social value means the norms or forms of behavior which are widely acceptable and admirable in society. Social are the root of all virtues that pave the way for the harmony of a society. It is the social values that are the key to the development of a society. With social values, a person shapes up as a good human being and plays an important role in society’s development. That can be beneficial for the society as well as that particular individual. Thus if every individual develops good social values and play crucial role in the society’s development with those values, that will be of maximum benefit to that particular society.

Different Individual Values

As human beings, we all have our own values, beliefs and attitudes that we have developed throughout the course of our lives. Our family, friends, community and the experiences we have had all contribute to our sense of who we are and how we view the world. As community services workers, we are often working with people who are vulnerable and/or who may live a lifestyle that mainstream society views as being different or unacceptable.

Importance of Values

The importance of values cannot be overemphasized; some of the importance are highlighted below

1.Values enable us to know what our society cherishes and what it does not cherish, which will enable us to know the expectations of our society.

2.Values are used to determine or control the behavior of people in the society; it helps to guide our behaviours towards other people.

3.Good values enable us to set goals for ourselves; it acts as a standard of conduct which will guide us to achieve our objective in life.

4.It also help us to have a good and positive influence on others

5.Value helps us in making a right decision.

6.It makes us happy and fulfilled because it brings a sense of fulfillment and happiness.

Opportunities to defend oneself and Factors that promote good Value System

It is important for an individual to be given an opportunity to defend himself or herself in any situation. It is wrong to judge someone without listening to his or her part of the story.

Importance of Opportunity to defend oneself

1.It helps in settlement of conflicts and disputes. It is important to hear from everyone involved in a conflict before conclusion is made.

2.It protects individual right for fair hearing.

3.Opportunity to defend oneself prevents injustice in the society.


1.All the following options is true of social values except

(a) it is the root of all virtues that pave the way for the harmony of a society

(b) They are the key to the development of a society

(c) Help to shape citizens into good human beings

(d) promote criminal activities in the society

2.One of these options does not contribute to building up individual’s social values

(a) family

(b) community

(c) criminals

(d) friends

3.One of the importance of values is that

(a) help us to have a good and positive influence on others

(b) help us to control other people

(c) help us to mock our friends

(d) help us to cheat others

4.Everyone deserves a right to _____ themselves

(a) defend

(b) respect

(c) fight

(d) destroy

5.Opportunity to defend oneself prevents ____ in the society

(a) justice

(b) injustice

(c) unity

(d) happiness

Week 4

Topic: Community Services and its Values



  • Community Services and its Values
  • Practical Involvement in the community Services
  • Project Work

Community Services and its Values

Community service is the activity performed by someone or a group of people for the benefit of a community, so as to see to the development and progress of the society for the purpose of bringing development in the environment. It is a way by which people complement the government for the work done by them; it’s a way of contributing their own quota to the development of the state.

Example of community services are as follows

  • Building of community hall
  • Cleaning street drainage to prevent flooding
  • Tutoring children with learning disability
  • Construction of sign posts to indicate streets name
  • Building of community libraries
  • Construction of wooden bridges to link streets together from one area to another.

Importance of community service

Community service is important because of the following reasons

  • It is the best way to instill sense of responsibility on people
  • It promotes national integration
  • It is the best way to instill sense of responsibility on people
  • It is an avenue for getting members of a community to come together.
  • It’s an avenue for citizens to participate in government.
  • It promotes national integration
  • It creates a sense of unity and oneness and promotes growth.

Practical Involvement in the community Services

Project Work

Test and Exercises

1.Community service is the activity performed by someone or a group of people for the

(a) benefit of a few people

(b) benefit of individuals

(c) benefit of one’s family

(d) benefit of a community

2.Citizens perform community service as a way of  ________ their own quota to the society

(a) abandoning

(b) contributing

(c) fighting

(d) deducting

3.The following are examples of community service except

(a) tutoring children with learning disability

(b) construction of sign posts to indicate streets name

(c) beating up the community bully

(d) building of community libraries

4.Community service instills ______ in the people

(a) violence

(b) criminality

(c) sense of worship

(d) sense of responsibility

5.One of these is not an importance of community service

(a) it is an avenue for getting members of a community to come together.

(b) it’s an avenue for citizens to participate in government.

(c) It promotes national integration

(d) it promotes hate speech

Week 5



  • Meaning of HIV/AIDS and its Differences
  • Cause drivers and mode of transmission of HIV/AIDS
  • Signs, Symptoms and Effects of HIV/AIDS

Meaning of HIV/AIDS

The first recognized cases of AIDS occurred in the USA in the early 1980s. HIV is a lentivirus, and like all viruses of this type, it attacks the immune system. Lentiviruses are in turn part of a larger group of viruses known as retroviruses. The name ‘lentivirus’ literally means ‘slow virus’ because they take such a long time to produce any adverse effects in the body. They have been found in a number of different animals, including cats, sheep, horses and cattle.

HIV means Human Immune-deficiency Virus  and AIDS means Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.

AIDS is a disease of the human system caused by HIV by damaging one’s immune system

HIV interferes with the body’s ability to fight the organisms that cause disease. HIV is a sexually-transmitted infection. It can be spread by contact with infected blood or from mother to child during pregnancy.

Causes of HIV/AIDS

A person can be infected with HIV/AIDS through the following ways

  • From mother to child: A mother who is infected with HIV can infect their babies during pregnancy, child birth or through breast feeding. Treatment of HIV infection during pregnancy, the risk of transferring it to their babies is reduced.
  • Sharing contaminated sharp objects: Another means by which HIV can be transmitted is through sharp objects like clippers, needles, razor etc that are contaminated with infected people.
  • During sexual act: unprotected sex with someone already infected with HIV has accounted for greater number of cases of HIV infection worldwide.
  • Blood Transfusion: HIV can spread through blood transfusion i.e the transfer of blood from one person to another.

Symptoms of HIV/AIDS

Victims of HIV/ AIDS suffer from diseases which their body system would have fought normally, some of the diseases and signs or symptoms are listed below:

  • Memory loss
  • Anaemia
  • Fever
  • Tuberculosis
  • Nausea
  • Chronic cough
  • Chronic diarrhoea

Effects of HIV/AIDS

HIV/AIDS has the following effect on the infected people

  • HIV/AIDS make victims very uncomfortable and ill because they are always prone to various diseases
  • HIV/AIDS victims suffer psychologically because they are always pessimistic and live in fear.
  • HIV/AIDS increased dependency ratio
  • People die of the disease
  • HIV/AIDS lead to increase level of poverty as victims of the disease spend much money on hospital bills to keep themselves alive
  • It leads to broken homes, spouses may decide to divorce each other after realizing one of the partner has been infected with HIV/AIDS
  • It leads to reduction of population in the country since many of the victims die
  • Reduction in manpower

Test and Exercises

1.The first recognized cases of HIV/AIDS was first discovered in

(a) early 1980s

(b) lately 1980s

(c) early1990s

(d) lately 1990s

2.Symptoms of HIV/AIDS are the following except

(a) chronic cough

(b) memory loss

(c) nausea

(d) eye problem

3.HIV means

(a) Human Innovative Virus

(b) Human Immune Virus

(c) Human immune-deficiency Syndrome

(d) Human Individual Visual

4.An individual can be infected with HIV/AIDS with the following ways except

(a) blood transfusion

(b) during sexual act

(c) keeping to one spouse

(d) from mother to child

5.AIDS means

(a) Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

(b) Acquired Innovation for Deficiency Syndrome

(c) Acquired Immune Diseases Syndrome

(d) Applied Immune Deficiency Syndrome’


Week 6

Topic: HIV/AIDS (Cont’d)


  • Preventive Measures of HIV/AIDS
  • How to care for people with HIV/AIDS
  • Stigmatisation of PLWHA (People Living With HIV/AIDS)
  • Meaning of HIV/AIDS Stigmatisation
Recommended:  UNIZIK Resumption Date For Freshers And Returning Students 2023/2024 Session

Preventive Measures of HIV/AIDS

The following are some main ways of preventing the spread of HIV in our community and country. These way often called ‘ABC’ which is summarized thus;

  • It stands for complete ABSTINENCE meaning do not engage in sexual act till one is married.
  • It stands for be faithful to one partner especially those that are married and in relationship.
  • It stands for using condoms. This does not mean that sex is recommended for an unmarried person, it is meant for married people to safeguard unwanted pregnancy and for those who cannot abstain from having sex.

How to care for people with HIV/AIDS


  • Showing love, respect and support
  • Knowing the facts about HIV/AIDS and talking openly about the disease
  • Helping to reduce stress and stressful situations
  • Helping to provide balanced and nutritious meals
  • Encouraging them to get treatment if they are sick.  Most infections are easily treated and cured, even if a person is HIV positive
  • They should not be rejected in the society

Stigmatization of People living with HIV/AIDS

HIV stigmatization is the discrimination and negative attitudes of people in the society towards people living with HIV/AIDS

Victims of HIV/AIDS are stigmatized in various ways, which are:

  • People living with victims of HIV/AIDS are rejected by family members and friends
  • Most of them are sacked from their employment
  • They are avoided and rejected by members of the society
  • They are discriminated in the society
  • People living with victims of HIV/AIDS mocked them because of the diseases

Meaning of HIV/AIDS Stigmatisation

HIV-related stigma and discrimination refers to prejudice, negative attitudes and abuse directed at people living with HIV and AIDS. In 35% of countries with available data, over 50% of men and women report having discriminatory attitudes towards people living with HIV.

The consequences of stigma and discrimination are wide-ranging. Some people are shunned by family, peers and the wider community, while others face poor treatment in healthcare and educational settings, erosion of their rights, and psychological damage. These all limit access to HIV testing, treatment and other HIV services.

The People Living with HIV Stigma Index indicates that roughly one in every eight people living with HIV is being denied health services because of stigma and discrimination.

Test and Exercises

1.The  ‘ABC’ of HIV/AIDS prevention is

(a) abstinence, faithfulness to one partner, use of condoms

(b) abstinence, unfaithfulness, use of condoms

(c) not abstaining from sex, faithfulness, use of condoms,

(d) abstinence, faithfulness, having unsafe sex

2.One of these is not a way of taking care of people with HIV/AIDS

(a) knowing the facts about HIV/AIDS and talking openly about the disease

(b) helping to reduce stress and stressful situations

(c) helping to provide balanced and nutritious meals

(d) running away from people with the disease

3.HIV/AIDS stigmatization means

(a) having friendly attitude towards people leaving with HIV

(b) encouraging people with the disease

(c) providing care for people with HIV

(d) having discriminatory attitudes towards people living with HIV

4.The following are examples of stigmatization faced by people living with HID/AIDS except

(a) prejudice

(b) negative attitudes

(c) love

(d) abuse

5.Abstinence means

(a) engaging with multiple sexual partners

(b) engaging in sexual acts on a regular basis

(c) not engage in sexual act till one is married

(d) unfaithfulness after one is married

Week 7

Topic: Youth Empowerment


  • Definition of the concept of Youth Empowerment
  • Various Youth Empowerment skills
  • Communication Skills
  • Artistic Skills

Definition of Youth Empowerment

Youth empowerment is the processes of making young people gain the ability, authority and the energy to make decision and implement changes in their own lives and the lives of other people.

Youth empowerment is an attitudinal, structural, and cultural process whereby young people gain the ability, authority, and agency to make decisions and implement change in their own lives and the lives of other people, including youth and adults.

Youth empowerment deals with provision of enabling environment which will help young people to make important and vital decision of life by themselves, it is a means of encouraging youths to do great things for themselves and also to make great impart in their society

Youth Empowerment involves the following:

  • Helping youth maximize and utilize their potential.
  • Helping the youth to develop their confidence and self identity
  • Encouraging them to grow together in accountability
  • Imbibing in them the eagerness to create a change

Youth Empowerment skills

1.Manipulative skills: It is the ability to manipulate things or object with the help of the body or a body part. E.g. kicking, throwing, bouncing etc.

2.Communicative skill: Communication is the process by which information is exchange between individuals or a group. It is one’s ability to transfer ideas and information to others through with the possible appropriate meaning.

3.Life coping skill: Life coping skills are those skills that we use to offset disadvantages in day to day life. It can be positive and negative. Positive life coping enables us to get through difficult situations while the negative life coping skills may bring about immediate satisfaction but automatically bring will worsen the situation of things later on.

Types of Communication skill

The types of communication skill are the following

1.Listening skill: Listening skill is the active process of receiving and responding to spoken and sometimes unspoken messages, this is a skill that enables one allow others to express their view about matters one has raised. This is possible by giving the other person attention, listen for understanding and letting the other person know what is said.

2.Expressive skill: These are skills used to convey to another person the information to which one have access, it is a skill used to give others information about their behavior. Expressive skills are done through the following ways: get the persons attention, convey the information to the person and finally check the persons understanding.

3.Managing the overall process: This is a third person skills that help you determine what to work on and what sort of information to exchange.

4.Intellectual skills: These are skills that that are critical, analytical, synthesizing problem-solving capacity. This can be acquired by learning, doing critical thinking and application of basic principles and having structured argument.

Artistic Skills

These include skills and talent to create fine works of art: painting, drawing, sculpting, musical composition, etc. These are close to communicative skills and are more complex. Includes the art of good writing, fine and applied arts, music and drama. These skills make effective use of all the other four kinds of communication skills where necessary.

Test and Exercises

  1. Youth empowerment gives young people the following except

(a) ability to make good decisions

(b) authority and energy to implement changes in their own lives

(c) ability to improve the lives of others

(d) ability to deceive people

  1. The ability to manipulate things or object with the help of the body or a body part is known as

(a) manipulative skill

(b) communication skill

(c) artistic skill

(d) life coping skill

  1. Intellectual skill can be acquired through all these activities except

(a) learning

(b) critical thinking

(c) application of basic principles

(d) preaching

  1. The skills used to offset disadvantages in day to day life is known as

(a) manipulative skill

(b) intellectual skill

(c) life coping skill

(d) expressive skill

  1. These are communicative skills except

(a) public speaking

(b) writing

(c) singing

(d) shooting



Week 8

Topic: Youth Empowerment II


  • Importance and Benefit of Youth Empowerment/Agencies of Empowerment
  • Guiding Students in acquiring a specific skills
  • Roles of Government in providing employment opportunities for youths

Importance and Benefits of Youth Empowerment

The following are benefits of Youth Empowerment

1.It reduces the level of ignorance and crime among young people

2.It serves as an opportunity for the youth to develop their skills and talents; thereby making them a better person

3.It develops the potential of the youth

4.It helps young people to be responsible

5.It helps youth to be self-reliant

6.It helps the youth to invest into their future

Agencies of Youth Empowerment

The following enhances youth empowerment in Nigeria:

  1. The schools

Particularly the technical colleges, polytechnics, universities etc. through skill acquisition trainings.

  1. The national directorate of employment (NDE). This is a government agency responsible for the training of all categories of youth for empowerment and capacity buildings.
  2. The national agency for poverty eradication programme (NAPEP). This has the major objective of poverty eradication through offering the youths loans for establishment, keke NAPEP for transport, motorbike also for transportation etc.
  3. The role of non-governmental organization as agent of youth empowerment cannot be overruled. Many local, community and international organizations were found to be helpful towards youth empowerment in Nigeria e.g. Red Cross, Lions’ Club, UNICEF, UNAD among others.

Guiding Students in acquiring a specific skills

Roles of Government in providing employment opportunities for youths

Government and its agencies established skills acquisition centres as part of their efforts to provide employment opportunities for citizens. Some of these include:

1) National Directorate of Employment (NDE): The NDE was established by the National Directorate of Employment Act 1989 and charged with responsibility of tackling all problems of unemployment in the country.

2) National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP): NAPEP was established in 2001 by the federal government of Nigeria. It is responsible for coordinating and monitoring all poverty eradication activities in Nigeria.

3) Skill acquisition and vocational training centres at various states and local government across the nation.

4) Individual trainers such as mechanics, carpenters, hairdressers, caterers, tailor, shoemakers, barbers etc.

Test and Exercises

1.Youth empowerment promotes

(a) self-reliance

(b) youthful exuberance

(c) pursuit of higher education

(d) foreign scholarship

2.Youth empowerment agencies do the following except

(a) reduce level of ignorance and crime among young people

(b) help youths develop their skills and talents

(c) help young people be self-reliant

(d) promote cultism

3.The following options are agencies of youth empowerment except

(a) schools

(b) secret cults

(c) national directorate of employment (NDE)

(d) national agency for poverty eradication programme (NAPEP)

4.National Directorate of Employment was established in

(a) 1982

(b) 1989

(c) 1986

(d) 1990

5.The responsibility of empowering the youths rests mostly with

(a) the political class

(b) religious organizations

(c) university administrators

(d) national governments

Week 9

Topic: Goals of Citizenship Education


  • Meaning of Citizenship, acquisition of citizenship
  • Definition of the goals of citizenship Education
  • Goal of Citizenship Education – Acquisition Knowledge, right attitude, value, etc.
  • Various Laws and Rights of individuals in the Society

Meaning of Citizenship

Citizenship can simply be defined as the legal right that a person has, to belong to a particular country. It is a situation whereby an individual becomes a legitimate member of a country, accepting responsibility and enjoying privileges attached to it. A citizen therefore is a legal member of a given state who possess the legal and natural rights in the state where he or she resides.

Acquisition of citizen

In the modern society, there are five main ways of acquiring citizenship, these are;

1.Citizenship by birth: this is the situation whereby the parents of the person are natives in the country or a person born by citizens of a country. For example; a child born by Nigerian parents automatically becomes a Nigerian by birth.

2.Citizenship by registration or marriage: this occurs when Nigerian male marries for example a Briton (a British) woman. The woman automatically becomes a citizen of Nigerian through registration of marriage.

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3.Citizenship by nationalization: this happens when an alien or a foreigner becomes a citizen of another country having fulfilled and satisfied the countries conditions to acquire the citizen of that country as laid down by the constitution of that country. It is a process by which an individual voluntary changes his/her citizenship of a state to that of another in which he or she resides. Some of the conditions that an alien of another country must fulfil are: as follow;

4.Applicant must be an adult acceptable in the community.

5.Applicant must be of good character

  • Applicant must swear an oath of allegiance

1.Applicant must be able and have been contributing to community and national development and growth.

2.Applicant must have been residing in a particular community in that country for specific period of time.

4.Honorary citizenship: from time to time the government of a country have been honouring distinguished or important person or eminent person with citizenship of that country. For example such icon figures in Nigeria like: Sir Ahmadu Bello, Nnamdi Azikwe, Chief Obafemi Awolowo have been honoured with citizenship of other countries of the world.

5.Citizenship by blood ties or decent: citizenship of a country is also acquired through blood ties. This means that the fact that a child was born in a particular community in the country does not necessarily confer the status of the citizenship on that person.

Meaning of Citizenship Education

This is the process of imparting the citizens with the knowledge of their rights, values and developing their skills and attitude towards the development and the affairs of their states.

Goals of Citizenship education

Citizenship education aims at achieving the goals below:

1.To prepare the students and the youth for leadership role

2.To develop the interest of the students towards the growth of their country.

3.To enable citizens acquire relevant knowledge about the affairs of a politically organized society at all levels.

4.To educate citizens on their right and inform them about their obligations in the country.

5.To enable citizens see the need for national unity.

6.To promote knowledge and understanding of the system of government in their country.

Various Laws and Rights of individuals in the Society

Law can be defined as a body of rules and regulation through which a society is governed to maintain peace and orderliness

Laws are made by the legislative part of government.

Types of law

1.Civic law: civic law helps people to enforce their rights. It is the branch of law that helps people to settle disputes between individuals and organization in which compensation may be awarded to the victim. It is the law of the state that deals with the right of the citizens.

2.Criminal law: It is the body of law that relates to crime. It is the law that sets out the punishment to be imposed on people who do not obey the laws, it is also known as penal law.

3.Public law: This is the law that controls the relationship between the arms of government. It also controls the relationship between the state and individual member of the state.

Rights of Citizens

According to section iv of the 1999 Nigeria constitution, Nigerian citizens are entitled to the following rights.

1.Right to life

2.Right to dignity of human person

3.Right to fair hearing

4.Right to private and family life

5.Right to freedom of conscience and religion

6.Right to freedom of expression

7.Right to personal liberty

8.Right to freedom of movement

9.Right to own property anywhere in Nigeria

10.Right to peaceful assembly and association.

Test and Exercises

1.The legal right that a person has to belong to a particular country is called

(a) staying power

(b) indigenization

(c) citizenship

(d) foreigner

2.Citizenship status is acquired through

(a) birth, indigenization, colonization, referendum

(b) association, convention, naturalization and incorporation

(c) birth, naturalization, honorary and registration

(d) registration, inter-relationship, integration and declaration

3.One of the aims of citizen education is to produce students with

(a) creative skill

(b) high sense of entrepreneurial skill

(c) high sense of patrotism

(d) manipulative skill

4.One of these is not one of the rights citizens enjoy

(a) right to kill

(b) right to life

(c) right to freedom of expression

(d) right to fair hearing

5.The laws through which a society is governed to maintain peace and orderliness include the following except

(a) criminal law

(b) church law

(c) public law

(d) civic law

Week 10

Topic: Goals of Citizenship Education (Cont’d)


  • Meaning of Government
  • Structures of Government
  • Functions of Government

Meaning of Government

As An Institution

Government is an agency or machinery through which the will of the state is formulated, expressed and attained. It is the institution which makes and enforces law within the territorial boundaries of the state in order to regulate activities within the state in the interest of the citizens.

As a Process or Art of Governing

Government is seen as a body vested with the power and authority for maintaining security, peace and stability by making and enforcing conventional and fundamental laws in a given state or society.

Structures of Government (Nigeria)

Nigeria is a federal republic of 36 states with Abuja as Federal Capital Territory. The total number of local government as contained in section 3 and first schedule of 1999 constitution is 774 local governments which includes 6 councils in Abuja. The constitution however, recognized three (3) tiers of government in Nigeria – Federal, State and Local government.

Features of (Nigerian) Government

1) There is supremacy of the constitution.

2) There is bicameral legislature at the federal level – National Assembly consisting of:

(a) The Senate: Composed of 109 senators with the senate president as the chairman. Each state of the federation has 3 senators each and the Federal capital has 1senator.

(b) House of representatives consists of 360 members with the honourable speaker as the Chairman. Seats at the House of Representatives are not shared equally.

3) At the state level, there are unicameral legislature i.e. state houses of assembly.

4) Abuja is the Federal Capital Territory and it is administered by the federal government.

5) The powers and functions of Nigeria are shared between the Federal and State governments. Shared under – Exclusive list (Federal), Concurrent list (Federal and states) and Residual list (states).

6) The federal and state government have its own judicial system.

7) The Supreme Court is the highest court of the federation.

8) Nigeria operates the presidential system of government in which the president is vested with all executive powers of government. The president is the head of state, the head of government and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces.

9) There is separation of powers and there are checks and balances.

10) The constitution is written and rigid.

11) Regulated multi-party system is operated.

Function of Government

1) Law Making: The main function of government includes law making, law execution and law adjudication.

2) Maintenance of law and order: The government is saddled with the responsibility of maintaining law and order. The police and the courts are established to carry out this function.

3) Defence of the country: To enable government function appropriately in this regard, the armed forces are set up and equipped to defend the country against any external attack.

4) Protection of lives and properties: The government owes it as its duty to protect lives and properties of the citizens.

5) Administration of justice: The law court settles disputes and administer justice. The prisons are established to punish offenders.

6) Provision of amenities: It is the duty of government to provide basic amenities for the well being of the citizens. For instance; Health care, public utilities, subsidized housing, public education etc.

7) Provision of employment opportunities: It is the duty of the government to provide employment and an enabling environment for the citizen to do business.

8) Political functions: These include conducting free and fair election, regulating political activities.

Test and Exercises

1.Government as an institution makes and enforces law in the interest of

(a) aliens

(b) indigents

(c) citizens

(d) political parties

2.The total number of local governments in Nigeria is

(a) 774

(b) 775

(c) 776

(d) 777

3.Nigeria operates a ______________ federal legislature

(a) unicameral

(b) bicameral

(c) tricameral

(d) quadcameral

4.The Nigerian government is structured into

(a) state, counties, federal

(b) local, federal, confederation

(c) federal, state, local

(d) counties, federation, state

5.At the state level, Nigeria operates a _______ legislature

(a) unicameral

(b) bicameral

(c) tricameral

(d) quadcameral





Week 11

Topic: Nationalism


  • Definition of Nationalism
  • Types of Nationalism
  • Effects of Nationalism in Nigeria

Definition of Nationalism

Nationalism can be defined as a certain form of unity which grows out of historical experience. It is the sense of oneness that emerges from social groups, trying to control their destiny, environment and defend their interest against competing groups.

National identity is based on history, culture and often language. Nationalism can be seen as the defence of this identity, the defence of the rights of a nation to remain or become a recognized entity. It can be classed as standing against the forces of oppression and tyranny.

Types of Nationalism

The different types of nationalism include the following:

1 Ethnic nationalism.

2 Civic nationalism.

3 Expansionist nationalism.

4 Romantic nationalism.

5 Cultural nationalism.

6 Post colonial nationalism.

7 Liberation nationalism.

8 Left-wing nationalism.

9 Religious nationalism.

10 Pan-nationalism.

11 Diaspora nationalism

Effects of Nationalism in Nigeria

  1. Enjoying fundamental human rights and being recognized as a citizen were effects of nationalism in Nigeria.
  2. It led to the end of colonialism in Africa.
  3. It provided opportunities for the training of the new African elites in politics
  4. It enlightened the masses and increased their awareness about politics in new Africa
  5. It led to the independence and development of the new African States.

Test and Exercises

  1. The form of unity which grows out of historical experience is called

(a) history

(b) nationalisation

(c) citizenship

(d) nationalism

  1. People identify with their nationality through which of these?

(a) Dancing, history, folktales

(b) citizenship, race, culture

(c) tribe, history, culture

(d) history, culture, language

  1. One of these is not a type of nationalism

(a) romantic nationalism

(b) ethnic naionalism

(c) racial nationalism

(d) cultural nationalism

  1. Nationalism can be classed as standing against the forces of

(a) oppression

(b) tyranny

(c) none of the above

(d) all of the above

  1. One of these is not an effect of nationalism in Nigeria

(a) it led to the end of colonialism

(b) it improved awareness about politics in new Africa

(c) It led to slavery

(d) it led to the recognition of human rights.

Hope you got what you visited this page for? The above is the lesson note for Civic Education for SS1 class. However, you can download the free PDF file for record purposes.

If you have any questions as regards Civic Education lesson note For SS1 class, kindly send them to us via the comment section below and we shall respond accordingly as usual.


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