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English Language Lesson Note for SS2 (Third Term) 2023

English Language lesson note for SS2 Third Term is now available for free. The State and Federal Ministry of Education has recommended unified lesson notes for all secondary schools in Nigeria, in other words, all private secondary schools in Nigeria must operate with the same lesson notes based on the scheme of work for English Language.

English Language lesson note for SS2  Third Term has been provided in detail here on schoolings.org

English Language Lesson Note for SS2 (Third Term) [year] 1

For prospective school owners, teachers, and assistant teachers, English Language lesson note is defined as a guideline that defines the contents and structure of English Language as a subject offered at SS level. The lesson note for English Language for SS stage maps out in clear terms, how the topics and subtopics for a particular subject, group works and practical, discussions and assessment strategies, tests, and homework ought to be structured in order to fit in perfectly, the approved academic activities for the session.

To further emphasize the importance of this document, the curriculum for English Language spells out the complete guide on all academic subjects in theory and practical. It is used to ensure that the learning purposes, aims, and objectives of the subject meant for that class are successfully achieved.

English Language Lesson note for SS2 carries the same aims and objectives but might be portrayed differently based on how it is written or based on how you structure your lesson note. Check how to write lesson notes as this would help make yours unique.

The SS2 English Language lesson note provided here is in line with the current scheme of work hence, would go a long way in not just helping the teachers in carefully breaking down the subject, topics, and subtopics but also, devising more practical ways of achieving the aim and objective of the subject.

The sudden increase in the search for SS2 English Language lesson note for Third Term is expected because every term, tutors are in need of a robust lesson note that carries all topics in the curriculum as this would go a long way in preparing students for the West African Thirdary Examination.

This post is quite a lengthy one as it provides in full detail, the government-approved lesson note for all topics and sub-topics in English Language as a subject offered in SS2.

Please note that English Language lesson note for SS2 provided here for Third Term is approved by the Ministry of Education based on the scheme of work.

I made it free for tutors, parents, guardians, and students who want to read ahead of what is being taught in class.

SS2 English Language Lesson Note (Third Term) 2023

SCHEME OF WORK FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE

THIRD TERM SS TWO

WEEK ONE: REVISION

WEEK TWO: STRUCTURE:  CLAUSE.

ESSAY- SPEECH WRITING

VOCABULARRY DEVELOPMENT– WORDS ASSOCIATED

WITH PUBLISHING

WEEK THREE: ESSAY: ARTICLE WRITING

STRUCTURE- ACTIVE AND PASSIVE FORM

SUMMARY WRITING

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT-INDUSTRIES

WEEK FOUR: ESSAY: ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY

STRUCTURE RULE OF CONCORD

THE USE OF DICTIONARY

WEEK FIVE: SPEECH WRITING

GRAMMAR: PREFIXES

SPEECH WORDS-STRESS

PLACEMENT ON TWO SYLLABLES

WEEK SIX: SUMMARY WRITING

  STRUCTURE: AFFIXATION, SUFFIXES

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT-WORDS ASSOCIATED WITH BANKING

WEEK SEVEN: EXPOSITORY: HOW TO IMPROVE FAMILY FUNCTIONS

THROUGH LOVE, COOPERATION, COMMUNICATION

STRUCTURE – IDENTIFICATION OF TYPE OF SENTENCES

WEEK EIGHT: STRUCTURE: PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES

SUMMARY WRITING

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT-HOTEL AND CATERING INDUSTRY

WEEK NINE: I) COMPREHENSION: READING A PASSAGE

  1. II) STRUCTURE: IDIOMS

III) VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

  1. IV) WORDS ASSOCIATED WITH GOVERNMENT POLITICS

WEEK TEN:  I) SPEECH WORK-NASAL CONSONANT

  1. II) STRUCTURE- ADJECTIVAL CLAUSE

III) VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT-WORDS ASSOCIATED WITH TRANSPORTATION

 

WEEK ELEVEN: REVISION

 

WEEK ONE

REVISION OF LAST’S WORK

WEEK TWO

TOPIC: STRUCTURE-CLAUSES

 

A Clause is a group of words containing one finite verb and a main subject. It is like a sentence when it is capable of standing alone. It could also, however be introduced by such words as who, that, which, when and so forth. It will be incapable of standing alone in this instance. The former is referred to as subordinate or dependent clause.

THE MAIN CLAUSE: This can stand on its own to make a complete sense or sentence. Example;

  • I am going home now.
  • The choir came and ministered

Subordinate clause

Features:

  • It is a group of words
  • It always has a finite verb
  • It does not express a complete thought.it needs the main clause to make a complete sense or sentence
  • It only forms part of the sentence.

Examples;

  • As soon as the boy saw the teacher, he took to his heels.
  • Unless he passes the examination, he will not travel abroad.

TYPE OF SUBORDINATE CLAUSES

There are three types of subordinate clauses, namely: noun clause, relative or adjectival clause and adverbial clause.

Noun or Nominal Clauses: this clause behaves like a noun or noun phrase. Therefore, it functions as subject of verbs, object of verb and object of preposition in a sentence. It is introduced by any of such typical words as that, why, whether, how, what and so forth.

Examples;

Subject of the verb

How Sola passed the examination beets the imagination of her teachers

 

Functions: Subject of the verb “beats”

Why he refused to put in his letter of resignation is best known to him

Functions: Subject of the verb “is known “

Subject complement

Examples;

  • The good news is that he passed his ICAN examination
  • The underlined noun clause refers to the good news. It is the same thing as the good news

Object of the verb

Examples;

The authority awarded what is termed punctuality award.

 

Functions: Object of the verb “awarded”.

The suspect eventually accepted that he was guilty

Function: The object of the verb “accepted”

Object complement

Examples:

The authority gave the student what is termed award for excellence.

Function: compliment of the object “student”

The robbers killed the man because he did not give them what they demanded for.

Functions: Compliment of the object “them”

Adverbial clause: It behaves like an adverb, meaning it modifies verbs, adjectives an adverbs. It falls into several categories depending on the introductory word employed.

Examples:

Time: since, while, when, after, before,

He had arrived since the rain started

 

Function: It modifies the verb” arrived”

Place:, whenever

The dog hid where the puppies slept

 

Purpose: That, so that, in order that.

He suffered insult so that he might have peace.

Cause: Because, as, in as much as, that,

Because she was impatient, I hurried home.

 

Concession: Although, though, even, if,

Although Ade is physically handicapped, he is very hardworking

 

Condition: if, unless, provided, incase.

I will present a paper, if I pay the registration fee.

 

Comparison: as, than.

She is more brilliant than I am.

 

Assignment:

  • Give the grammatical names and functions of the following sentences;
  • I saw him when he was going to church
  • A very expensive Swiss wrist-watch was presented to the beauty queen
  • The landlord whose house was burgled has reported to the police
  • His action resulted into what his father predicted
  • The surgery performed by the doctor was successful.

 

VOCABULARRY DEVELOPMENT

 

TOPIC: WORDS ASSOCIATED WITH BOOK PUBLISHING

 

Publishing a book involves several processes. It is more than collecting a manuscripts from authors, having them printed into books, selling the books and making money out of it. book publishing starts from when the publisher receives the manuscript from the author. The author is the writer or the originator of a publication. Two or more people can jointly write a book such writers are referred to as co-authors. Manuscript which are rough copies of books, may be either handwritten or type written, and the manuscripts either sent to the publisher directly or through the publisher’srepresentative.to avoid loss of manuscripts, publishers open progress cards for every manuscript they receive. The record of the movement of the manuscript is kept on the progress card. This will enable the publisher to trace manuscript to the latest holder at any given moment.

 

When the necessary facts about a manuscript have been entered into the progress card, it is sent to the editor who reads through the manuscript and writes a critical appraisal. The critical appraisal includes the commercial possibility of the book and the value of its content. The editor edits the language and removes all the errors in the manuscript. The editor’s report is written and sent to the publisher.

 

If the manuscript is certified alright, the publisher will arrange for the printing of the book .if it does not have a press of his own, he has to award a contract first to the printer who prints the book and then the book-binder who binds the book. It is the publisher who determines the shape of the book, the quality of printing paper to be used, the style of type, the kind of binding cloth and the hard-board cover or the paperback .the publisher and the printer will have to cast off the content of the book. This involves counting the number of words in the whole manuscript in order to determine the number of pages there are to be in the printed book.

 

Soon after the commencement of printing works on the book, the printer send the galley proof copies of the book to the publisher who sends a copy to the author.at this early stage, corrections which are mostly typographical can be made. When the page book is passed as correct, the printer runs off the pages of the book for a particular impression. Impression is the first lot or batch of the book that is printed at a time. The earlier number of copies of a book printed out constitutes the first impression. The second batch or lot of the book printed out, mostly at the request of the publisher is the second impression.

 

A reprint is the same thing as an impression. They both mean a book reprinted without any addition or alteration. The number of impression is a pointer to the rate at which the book is selling. A book usually has an imprint which is the publisher’s or the printer’s mark and place. The imprint is found either on the title-page or at the end of the book.

However, if a book is revised, that is there are additions and changes, the book is said to be published in another  edition. An author of a book has a copy right which is the right of ownership. Copyright protects the book from book piracy. To pirate a book is to reproduce it without the author’s or the authorized publisher’s permission. The author collect royalty which is normally ten percent of the published price from the publisher for his effort.

 

ASSIGNMENT

In the following passage, the numbered gaps indicate missing words .against each number in the list below, five choices are offered in the columns lettered A to  E. for each questions, choose the word that is the most suitable to fill the numbered gap in the passage.

 

Sometimes it seems that the actual writing of a book is the least arduous parts of a writer’s job, at least in comparison to the task of getting what he has written published. The final   1    is ready, but then there is the problem of preparing different      2    of it to be sent to different publishing    3  . One can use    4   paper to count down on typing, although sometimes the print (except on the    5  )     may become blurred, so some people prefer using    6   , then running them through a       7    machine. Whatever   the writer chooses, he is still a long way from being published. For every hundred    8    that reach the publisher, perhaps only one finally gets to pass through the actual   9.  First the writer’s work has to be assessed by a publisher’s    10 . He will assessed it for both   11    and    12    qualities, although the two do always go together. After this stage the work may be   13   , sent back for    14, or    15 outright. If the first, the writer can rejoice that, yes, at last he is going to be published. All that brain scratching and pen-filling has not gone in vain. All that is left is the matter of    16    to ensure others do not still his ideas; then the payment of    17   . But even if the book becomes a best-seller in his own lifetime, the writer’s real reward is the acknowledgement of 18.  

 

A   BCDE
1DraftAttemptEssayParchmentPiece
2VolumesCopiesVersionsEditionsScrolls
3HousesInstitutionsFactoriesSchoolsPresses
4FoolscapCarbonQuartoLinedDual
5Top-copyMasterParchmentManuscriptText
6GraphsCopiesStencilsCarbonsMoulds
7ReproducingDuplicationMultiplyingTelexPrinting
8VersionsPublicationsHand-outsFoldersManuscripts
9PlantPressUnitJointMangle
10ReaderLackeyLibrarianClerkRepresentative
11LiteraryLiterateReadableLegibleLegitimate
12ProfitableEconomicFinancialMonetaryCommercial
13EditedAcceptedCensoredCutStamped
14MarkingRevisionCriticismContemplationProcessing
15RejectedFailedBlamedReprimandedRelinquished
16LitigationFinalizationOriginalityCopyrightBinding
17RoyaltiesSalariesGratuitiesCommissionRights
18ProsperityEternityPosterityMortalityMorality

 

ESSAY WRITING

TOPIC: SPEECH WRITING

Writing is a form of persuasive communication. There is always a point of view to project and which the writer wants the reader to understand. In other words, we write for a for a reader. The success of writing is therefore best judged by how well the reader understands the message we are trying to send by writing.

SPEECH WRITING: speech writing is, in most cases, in form of end-of-a-year speech, price-giving day speech or other forms of speech-making occasions whereby one is required to deliver a speech. Speech writing demands the skills of writing almost as one speaks.

How to write a good speech

  • content:

the content demands on the topics you are given but your points must be relevant to the topic on which you are writing your speech. In addition make sure that you write on all the aspects of the question to earn a good mark under content.

  • Organization:

In speech writing you should imagine that you have an audience listening to you. Therefore, you are expected to start your speech with the usual vocatives “Chairman, the Principal, Members of staff, Ladies and Gentlemen————–“ your audience depends on the question you are answering; your question will definitely give you an idea who your audience is.

You must arrange your ideas or point in a logical sequence.

  • Expression:

Speech writing demands a good command of language. Use simple sentences because it is important that you should make your audience follow your line of thought.

Speech making is meant for oral delivery, therefore you can use various oratorical techniques like rhetorical questions and you can make use of contracted forms of words like don’t, doesn’t, didn’t etc. These oratorical techniques will enable you to write as if you were addressing your audience directly. In addressing your audience, you can use words like, you, our, we, you, and I

Don’t use slangs and colloquial expressions.

ASSIGNMENT:

Write a speech you will give to your fellow prefects in your capacity as the senior prefect on your ideas for the improvement of discipline in the school.

WEEK THREE

ESSAY

TOPIC: ARTICLE WRITING

 

An article is a complete piece of writing on an issue of public interest.it usually contains views or opinions of its writer on a specific issue or topic.

Useful hints on how to write a good Article.

  • Content:

The content depends on the topic you are asked to write on, but you must write on all aspects of the question to earn a good mark. Your points must be relevant to the question.

  • Organization:

Writing an article is the same as writing a letter to the editor of a news –paper. You are not expected to write a letter to the editor when you are asked to write an article for publication in a newspaper or magazine.

You are expected to write the title of the article clearly on top of the article.

You are expected to write an introductory paragraph in which you are to give your readers an insight to your topic.

Consider the interest of your readers and the affects you wants to create on the readers.

Presents your points in a logical order and develop your paragraphs adequately.

Write your name and class below at the end of your article.

 

  • Expression:

 

Your language should be formal since you are writing an article for publication in a newspaper or magazine

Topic for article call for expository prose and clarity of expression. Write in simple, straight-forward sentences and avoid using slangs.

Your vocabulary should be carefully chosen for effectiveness.

ASSIGNMENT:

Write an article for publication in your school magazine on the causes and consequences of increase in cult activities on our campuses.

TOPIC:  SUMMARY WRITING

WHAT IS SUMMARY?

Summary involves writing down a brief and concise account of a long passage. In other words, summary can be described as a shortened form of a long passage after removing all irrelevant points from the main points and giving a short account of the passage using your own words.

 

In any summary exercise, there is always a piece of written prose which students are expected to read and understand. The ability of students to to comprehend and report accurately the main points in a passage is always tested through the summary questions set on the passage.

There are four main things students have to note in order to write a good summary. These are:

  1. Brevity: This demand that they must be brief and concise in their answers. There is no room for the use of flowery language or any other additional information aside from the main points.
  1. Relevance: This calls for a candidate’s answers to be relevant to the points mentioned in the passage. Students are not expected in summary writing to give any fact or point outside the passage, however relevant they think the fact or point is.
  2. Proper coverage of the passage:this demand that students must read and understand every aspect of the passage. This calls for proper understanding of the passage since the passage is unlikely to lend itself so easily to them.
  3. Clarity:This means that the students are expected to put down their answers correctly.

HOW TO WRITE A GOOD SUMMARY

It is possible to score all the marks in summary in W.A.S.S.C.E, NECO and in any other examination, and it is also very easy to score zero. Students’ success in summary depends on how well they follow the procedure given to them on how to write a good summary. A student who fails to take the step-by-step approach to summary writing may end up flopping the whole exercise.

You are advice to take the following approaches in summary writing: READ THE PASSAGE VERY CAREFULLY:  

Most student fail summary simply because they fail to read the given passage carefully to understand it. You cannot write a good summary if you don’t understand the given passage. Most students feel that they can have a look at the questions first before reading the passage. This approach is wrong as this may tempt you to start reading the passage piecemeal within paragraphs, searching for where the answers are and thereby putting it down verbatim or word for word.

Writing a good summary demands that you read the passage very well so as to have a proper understanding of it before attempting to put down your answers. Having said this, reading and understanding the passage may take you more than one reading.

Firstly, reading the passage very quickly to know the subject matter of the passage. S.S.C.E summary passages are never titled. This is deliberate as it is meant to make students read through the passages and to forestall students’ attempt to guess at answers to the questions.

After the first reading, you can read the passage once again to intimate yourself better with the subject matter of the passage. After the second reading, you can then proceed to read the questions as this will provide an insight to what you will now focus your attention on when you are reading for the third time.

Re-read the passage for the third time and you can now underline or note where the required information for answering your question are. Of course, after the  third reading, you should be ready to go back to the questions, and answer them.

 

HOW TO PUT DOWN SUMMARY ANSWERS.  

Write in sentences: summary answers should be written in sentences. When the student writes a preamble (A kind of introduction to his sentences) to his answers, the preamble must flow into the sentences.

For example, in a question where the student is asked to summarize the factors responsible for different levels of achievement in schools, the students will need to write a preamble to all his sentences. The preamble will be: “the factors responsible for different levels of achievement in school are……..” this can be followed by his sentences summarizing the factors. e.g. the factors responsible for different levels of achievement in schools are;

(I) Where the school are located.

(ii) Some schools are located in privileged areas where others are not.

The above sentences are complete sentences because they have their distinct subjects and verbs and other elements of a sentence. Another important thing is that you should not write more than the number of the sentences you are asked to write. Where you are asked to write two sentences, don’t write one sentence or three sentences.

  • Short and concise answers: summary answers should be short and concise. Avoid the inclusion of irrelevant/ extraneous materials in every scoring answer. Limit your answers only to information available in the passage.
  • Use your words: in writing down your answers, make use of your own words and expression as much as possible. You are not expected to engage in middles lifting of words and expressions from the passage.
  • Use good grammar:summary answers should be written down in good grammar and expression. Make sure that your answers are devoid of grammatical and expression errors.
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CAUSES OF LOST OF MARKS IN SUMMARY WRITING.

Students lost marks heavily in summary exercises because they fail to adhere strictly to the principles and procedures guiding the practice of summary. A careless student will lose some marks because various penalties are imposed on every careless presentation of summary answers. The causes of loss of marks in summary writing are:

  1. Mindless lifting of words from the passage: This is a grievous offence in summary. Mindless lifting of a passage means copying down the answers verbatim, using the exact words and expression of the writer of the passage.  Firstly, it shows poor understanding of the passage and secondly, it means that the student cannot put down another person’s thoughts, points and ideas in his or her own expression. Indiscriminate lifting does not merit marks in a summary test; it only attract zero.
  1. Absence of conciseness and relevance:Conciseness and relevance are rigidly demanded in summary. Inclusion of irrelevant or extraneous and unnecessary material in every scoring answer will attract the penalty of deduction of one mark.
  1. Phrases and incomplete sentences:  In summary, you are expected to write your answers in complete sentences with subjects, verb and probably other elements of a sentence present in them .When  a student writes phrases where complete sentence are demanded , the examiner will award 2 ½ marks instead of a mark of 5 for each of the scoring answers.
  1. Wrong preamble/introduction:In summary answer where the students write a wrong preamble which does not flow with his sentences, he or she can only score 21/2 marks instead of 5. Where the preamble taken with the rest of each answer makes a sentence, the student will score a full mark of 5.
  1. Writing two scoring point in one sentence: where a student writes two scoring points in one sentence, he or she will gets marks for the first one while the other point will be regarded as irrelevant by the examiner.
  1. Writing more  than required  number of sentences :Where a candidates writes more than the required number of sentences, the required number of sentences will be marked  and examiner will ignore others. The danger of this is that the scoring answers may be in those sentences the students writes in excess.
  1. Grammatical/expression errors:with every grammatical and expression error, the students loses ½ marks.

You should be aware that one imposition of one penalty for an error does not preclude the imposition of another penalty for any other error committed even in one scoring answer. In other words, the imposition for inclusion of irrelevant or extraneous material in one scoring answer will not arouse pity in your examiner not to impose penalty for another error you committed in the same scoring answer. Therefore, you have to make sure that you practiced summary regularly so as to acquire the necessary skills and techniques of summary writing.

 

TOPIC: ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE

 

ACTIVE VOICE: a verb is used in the active voice when the doer of an action is made to function as the subject. Here, it means the writer or speaker is more interested in the doer.

Examples:

The teacher is teaching the students.

The student comes late every day.

He preached a good sermon last Sunday

 

 

PASSIVE VOICE: a verb is used in a passive voice when the receiver(object) of an action is made to function as the subject. The focus is more on the receiver of the action.

Examples:

The students are being taught by the teacher.

A good sermon was preached by the pastor last Sunday.

 

ASSIGNMENT:  

 

Change the following into passive voice.

  • We have climbed that mountain many times.
  • The politicians perceived the voters in different ways.
  • Mosquitoes carry diseases.
  • The examination will be completed next week
  • When will you paint your house. 

SUMMARY WRITING

CONTENT:

ASSIGNMENT: New oxford English for Senior Secondary School SS2 page 127-128.

TOPIC: MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES

The development of manufacturing industry in Nigeria did not receive an early boost as the country, right from the start, considered herself primarily as an agricultural country. Added to this was the unwritten law of colonial economy to the effect that Nigeria should provide cheap raw materials for the British and other Western manufacturing firms.

 

The negative effect of this orientation was an unhealthy dependence on the importation of manufactured goods whose costs out-weighed the income generated by the raw materials exported. The import-oriented attitude of the Nigerian indigenous businessmen further denied the country a good start. This trend however started to change as Nigeria latter pursued an industrialization strategy based on import substitution known as the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP). The programme is mainly to discourage avoidable importation and to emphasize the local sourcing of raw materials for the existing industries.

 

The pioneers of early industrial development in Nigeria were foreign companies whose activities at the time centered around produce merchandising and general trading. These companies, such as the U.A.C, John Holt, SCOA, PZ and CFAO were later to form the nucleus of local manufacturing industries. other companies include Lever Bothers to manufacture soap, toiletries and detergents, the Nigeria Breweries Limited  and the Nigerian Tobacco Company Limited. Public utility corporations  like the Electricity cooperation of Nigeria, which was later changed to National Electric Power Authority,( but now Power Holding Company of Nigeria) , Nigeria Ports Authority and Nigerian Railway Corperation were established  as a vehicles for industrial development in the country.

 

The manufacturing industries are now classified under the private sector of the economy and the companies under this sector are under the Manufacturer Association of Nigeria. The Government established an industrial development coordinating Department   in the Federal Ministry of Industries with powers to handle and treat all matters relating to initial approvals, for the establishment of industries and other businesses in Nigeria. It is also to advise the government on policy review, proposals on tariffs, excise duties and various incentive scheme as they relate to industrial development. The manufacturing industry in Nigeria includes; chemical industry like  NAFCON, salt production, cement manufacturing, vehicle assembly plants, machine tools manufacturing companies, paper manufacturing companies, sugar companies, oil companies, etc.

 

WEEK FOUR

STRUCTURE: CONCORD

Concord simply means agreement between the subject of a sentence and its verb element.

  • I am happy to write you this letter.
  • One of my brother’s friends is here.
  • The people needs our help.

 

(i) indiscriminate use of capital Letters:

Capital letters should not be used indiscriminately with sentences except they are to begin proper nouns.

e.g. ‘our mother was Admitted into the hospital’ instead of ‘our mother was admitted into the hospital’.

You have note this because for every capital letter used wrongly, there is a loss of one-half mark.

 

(ii) Writing personal pronoun in small letter:

Personal pronoun, I, should always be written in capital letter even if it occurs in the middle of a sentence.

e.g. he was there when i (I) came in.

 

(iii) Arbitrary use of comma:

The comma should not be used arbitrarily and it should not occur immediately after the verb as most students use it, e.g.

How, are you?

I receive, your telegram yesterday in which you, informed me, about your sister’s marriage.

 

(iv) Grammatical errors:

Though errors  of grammar are too numerous to mention here, let us see some of the examples of these errors.

 

(v) ERRORS OF NUMBER:

e.g. My sister and brother goes (go) to the school everyday.

Everybody  were (was) happy

(vi) WRONG USE OF PREPOSITIONS:

e.g. My reasons of(for) writing this letter.

I want to plead to (with) all of you.

They travel out on (for) some important reasons.

 

(viii) WRONG TENSES AND WRONG SEQUENCE:

e.g. This is to inform you that I (will) not come to the wedding.

(vii) wrong plural formations and uncountable nouns:

e.g. (a) You that Mushin is full of dirts (dirt)

(b) We don’t have enough technical equipments (equipment) in our laboratory.

viii) Wrong Amalgamation or joining of two words:

Some words are supposed to be written separately but they are ignorantly joined together. Examples of such words are:

 

  • Infact For in fact
  • Inspite for in spite
  • Afterall for after all
  • Inasmuch for in as much
  • Ofcourse for of course
  • Attimes for at times
  • Atleast for at least
  • A lot for a lot.

 

(ix) wrong separation of words:

Some words are suippose to be written as one but they are ignorantly separated into two words. Examples of such words are:

 

  • Them selves for themselves
  • Ther by for thereby
  • More over for moreover
  • There fore for therefore
  • Never the less for nevertheless
  • In deed for indeed

 

(x) Arbitrary use and omission of the Apostrophe:

Apostrophe is often used carelessly by students when they want to indicate plural forms of nouns,

e.g. Many teacher’s are lazy nowadays instead of many teachers are lazy nowadays.

Other examples are : The Ibo’s demand high bride price on their daughters instead of The Ibos demand high bride price on their daughters.

Careless omission of the apostrophe where necessary also constituted errors.

e.g. My uncle friend for My uncle’s friend.

 

(xi) Use of Un-English Expression:

Many students make mistake of un-English expression mainly as a result of too close translation into English of their native language. The following are examples of such mistake:

I spent all the money on the head of our father in the hospital.

Come and see things with your eyes.

I wish to informant you that your recent telegram was received.

My sister has stomach upheaval.

We have no enough classrooms talkies of toilets and other facilities.

We ran away should in case the armed robbers came back.

 

RULES OF CONCORD

Concord (also termed ‘agreement) can be defined as the relationship between grammatical units such that one of them displays a particular feature  (e.g. Plurality) that accords with a displayed(or semantically implicit) feature in the other. The most important type of concord in English is concord of 3rd person numbered between subject and verb.

 

THE RULES

  1. A singular subject requires a singular verb.

e.g. my daughter watches television after supper. (singular subject+ singular verb)

  1. A plural subject requires a plural verb.

e.g.  my daughters watch television after supper. ( plural subject+ plural verb)

  1. When the subject is realized by s noun phrase, the phrase counts as singular if its head is singular.

e.g. The change in male attitudes  is most obvious in industry.

The changes in male attitudes  are most obvious in industry.

  1. Finite and non-finite clauses generally count as singular. E.g
  2. How you got there doesn’t concern me
  3. To treat them as hostages is a criminal.

iii. Smoking cigarettes is dangerous to your health.

  1. Prepositional phrase and adverb functioning as subject, also count as singular. e.g. In the evenings is best for me slowly does it!
  2. Exceptions to the subject- verb rule 3: when there is a compound subject that expresses one idea.

Examples:

The aim and objective of this meeting is to assess our performance.

Yam and egg is a popular dish among Nigerians.

  1. Collective nouns: A collective noun is seen strictly in the singular  but many be followed by a singular or plural verb form  depending on whether the noun is conceived of a singular or plural.

Example;

The army was in power for a very long time in Nigeria.

The committee were divided sharply along ethnic lines.

The collective noun must be used with consistency to indicate it it is singular or plural.

  1. Some words that serve as subject usually take singular verb forms. Words such as each, one, either, neither, the indefinite pronouns that end in-body or –one.

Examples:

Each of the students was made to sign an undertaking to be of good behavior.

Neither of the criminals volunteered any information.

Everybody is invited to my party.

  1. Other words like, few, many, several, etc. take plural verbs.

Examples:

Few can afford a decent meal.

Several of the rioters got injured.

Many of our students fend for themselves.

 

ASSIGNMENT

In the following sentences, supply the appropriate forms of the verbs.

Danladi (be) twenty-five years old next may.

The language they speak (hurt) my ears.

The shops (raise) their prices many times in the last few months.

By the time the policemen arrived, the criminal (escape).

Nina (learn) to swim in 1977.

 

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT: THE USE OF DICTIONARY

A dictionary is a reference book containing words usually alphabetically arranged along with information about their forms, pronunciations, functions, origins, meaning and syntactic and idiomatic uses. Any language, subjects or activity is capable of having its own dictionary with all the aforementioned properties.

 

The dictionary is particularly helpful in a second language situation where people face problems with the pronunciation of some words especially where certain sounds of the words are absent in the mother tongue. The dictionary provides an opportunity for such language users to learn to enunciate the sounds properly.

Apart from providing meaning of unfamiliar words of a language, a dictionary also assists in the area of spelling and word usage. A dictionary also list all the phonetic symbols of the language including the stress pattern. This assists to standardize usage of the language.

 

ASSIGNMENT

Write out the English alphabet and write out two new words with meaning making reverence to any dictionary.

ESSAY

TOPIC: ARGUEMENTATIVE ESSAY

Argumentative essay comes mainly in form of debate. It requires you to argue a point of view and persuades your examiner to accept your point of view. In argumentative essay, there are usually two sides and you are requested to take one side.

 

USEFUL HINTS ON HOW TO WRITE A GOOD ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY

 

  1. Content:

This is usually a debate in which you are required to argue for or against a proposition. Before putting pen to paper, look very carefully for the operative term in every proposition and establish your understanding of the term as a basis for your argument. The operative term is the key word or words in a proposition. For instance, the operative term in the proposition: ‘Life in the rural area is more rewarding than life in the urban area’. The key word here is ‘rewarding’. Such topic like: ‘Female children are more beneficial to their parents than the male children’ may look deceptively simple. The key words there are ‘beneficial ‘and ‘parents”. You are not expected to argue that female children or male children are more beneficial to the nations but to their parents. So you have to be careful and interpret your questions very well.

 

At least three arguments adequately developed for or against a proportion are enough for a good mark.

Maintain the stand you affirm at the beginning of the essay to the end; keep consistently to one side of the argument from the beginning to the end of the essay.

Draw out your points carefully and present them convincingly.

You are free to imagine and think of the possible arguments that your opponent might put up and you can refute such arguments to earn a good mark.

 

  1. Organization

Most argumentative essays require the presence of an audience. Therefore, you should imagine that you have an audience listening to your arguments. You are permitted to refer to this audience from time to time in your essay but this should not be overdone. Having said this, it is compulsory for you to start your debate with the usual vocative: ‘Chairman, Panel of Judges, Ladies and Gentlemen……………’ (note the use of capital letters at the beginning of each  word in the vocative). Your audience believes on the topic you are asked to write on.

 

There must be an introductive paragraph where you are expected to state your point of view or position on the topic you are asked to write on.

In the body of essay, you are expected to support your views with arguments, illustrations and good quotation of some relevant statements made by knowledgeable people in the past which, of course, must be relevant to the topic under discussion.

In the concluding paragraph, you are expected to re-affirm your position or point of view and state categorically that your stand is better than that of your opponent.

Good paragraphing, coherence through the use of linking phrases and a logical sequence of ideas will be highly rewarded.

iii.  Expression

Argumentative essay demand a good command of language. Use simple sentences because it is important that you should make your audience follow your line of thought.

Make use of various oratorical techniques like reference to your audience from time to time and rhetorical questions can be asked in the body of the essay. (Rhetorical questions are the questions asked in  order to carry your audience along with you).

There is no room for slangs, as your language must carry conviction.

You can make use of exaggeration for emphasis but it must not be overdone.

 

ASSIGNMENT:

Argumentative Essay Model:

The Political Science Students Association in one of the higher institutions of learning has invited your school to participate in a debate on the topic: Civil Rule is Preferable to Military Rule. Write out your speech for or against the motion.

WEEK FIVE

TOPIC: PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES

A prefix is a word element added to a base or root at the beginning to give another word. Prefixes do not generally change or alter the word-class of the base or root word as suffixes do but they do change the meaning.

Examples are:

Build- base or root word

Re- a prefix

Rebuild.

Fair – base or root word

Un- a prefix

Unfair

Un  +educated – uneducated

Dis +qualify – disqualify

Under + develop   – under develop

 

SUFFIXES:  A suffix is a word element added to a base or root word at the end to give another word. Unlike prefixes, suffixes frequently alter the word-class and word-function. Suffixes change words from nouns to adjectives and adjectives to verb.

 

Examples:

Ness, nt, and dy can be added to get (a) happiness (b) solvent (d) comedy

EVALUATION: New Oxford English course book 3( sss ) page 96 exercise i-x

ASSIGNMENT

Oxford English Course For Junior secondary Schools book 3, page 96 exercise2 and 3

 

TOPIC: STRESS

Stress means the extra force usually applied when pronouncing a particular word or syllable. In other words, it is refer to a properties of syllables which make them stand out as more noticeable than others.

 

Stress can also be described as the contrast between different degrees of breath-force given to syllables in English. Stress embraces three clear categories. They are word Stress, Sentence Stress and Emphatic Stress.

 

WORD SRESS:

Word stress is more or less fixed. Each word possesses strong/weak stresses which is content words in English. These are Nouns, adverbs, Verbs, and Adjectives. It begins strongly at the beginning of the stress and dies down at the end of the syllable. It is often made with stable pitch.

 

In speech we use words of one, two or more syllables. In any words of more than one syllable, one syllable is stressed and the other syllable normally has a lesser degree of stress. In English, there are three degree of stress:

 

  • Primary/strong stress
  • Secondary stress
  • Unstressed/weak syllable.

 

Stress placement is shown;

  1. By either placing a mark (‘) at the beginning of the stressed syllable; for Example;

‘ contest                          con’test.

  1. OR by capitalizing the letters of the stressed syllable; for example:

‘CONtest,                           conTEST’.

 

Primary /strong/stressed syllable.

It is a syllable pronounced with greater or much effort. It is indicated by placing a STROKE (‘) on top before the syllable sound to be stressed but in this work the stressed shall be written in capital letter.

Primary stree on:

 

1st syllable 2nd syllable  3rd syllable

CAPtain                                comMAND               demoCRAtic

RUbber                                supPORT                    teleVISion

PAINter                               rejOICE                      inhiBItion

JOURney                              meTAllic                    acaDEmic

SUBject                                huMIlity                    pessiMIStic

inVENT                                  deVOTE                    reCEDE

 

 

 

 

WEEK SIX

STRUCTURE: SUFFIXES

A suffix is a word element added to a base or root word at the end to give another word. Unlike prefixes, suffixes frequently alter the word-class and word-function. Suffixes change word from nouns to adjectives and adjectives to adverbs. For example, the adjective severe, by the addition of the suffix –ity , is changed into a noun severity .The noun editor, by the addition of the suffix  -ial, is changed into an adjective editorial. Examples of suffixes a changes in word class and functions are:

  1. Noun-adjective suffixes
Suffix

 

-LESS

 

 

 

-LY

 

 

-FUL

 

 

-LIKE

 

 

-Y

 

 

-ISH

 

 

 

 

-ITY

 

 

-IAL

 

Meaning of suffix

 

Without

 

 

 

Having the qualities of

 

Having…., giving….,

 

 

Having the

Qualities of

 

Like…,covered

with

 

Belonging to, having the character of

 

 

 

 

 

 

Base / root word

 

Child (noun)

Care ( noun)

 

 

Coward (noun)

 

 

Help (noun)

 

 

Child ( noun)

 

 

Cream (noun)

Hair (noun)

 

Turk (noun)

Fool (noun)

 

 

 

Person (noun)

Legal (noun)

 

Editor (noun)

 

New word formed

 

Childless (adj.)

Careless(adj.)

 

 

Cowardly (adj.)

 

 

Helpful (adj.)

 

 

Childlike (adj.)

 

 

Creamy (adj.)

Hairy (adj.)

 

Turkish (adj.)

Foolish (adj.)

 

 

 

Personality (adj.)

Legality (adj.)

 

Editorial (adj.)

 

  1. Adjective-noun suffixes

 

Suffix

 

 

-NESS

 

 

 

 

-ITY

 

Meaning of suffix

 

 

State, quality

 

 

 

 

Sane (adj.)

Senile (adj.)

Electric (adj.)

Base/root word

 

 

Happy (adj.)

Sad (adj.)

Clever (adj.)

New word  formed

 

Happiness (noun)

Sadness (noun)

Cleverness (noun)

 

Sanity (noun)

Senility (noun)

Electricity (noun)

 

 

 

  1. Adverb suffixes

 

Suffix

 

 

-LY

 

 

 

-WISE

 

 

-WARD (S)

Meaning of suffix

 

 

 

Base/root word

 

 

Happy (adj.)

Strange (adj.)

Wistful (adj.)

 

Crab (noun)

Clock (noun)

 

Back (adv.)

For (adv.)

 

New word formed

 

Happily (adv.)

Strangely (adv.)

Wistfully (adv.)

 

Crabwise (adv.)

Clockwise (adv.)

 

Backward (adv.)

Forward (adv.)

 

  1. Adjective suffixes

 

Suffix

 

-ABLE

 

-IBLE

 

-ISH

Meaning of suffix

 

Able, worthy to

 

Can be

 

Some what

Base/root word

 

Read (verb)

 

Force (verb)

 

Young (adj.)

Fool (noun)

New word formed

Readable (adj.)

 

Forcible (adj.)

 

Youngish (adj.)

Foolish (adj.)

 

 

  1. Verb-noun suffixes

 

Suffix

 

-AL

 

 

-ER, -OR

 

 

 

-ANT

 

 

 

 

-MENT

 

-AGE

 

-ATION

 

Meaning of suffix

 

Action

 

 

Instrumental or

agentive

 

 

Agentive and instrumental

 

 

 

State, action

 

Activity, result of

 

State, action, institution

Base/root word

 

Refuse (verb)

Dismiss (verb)

 

Drive (verb)

Receive (verb)

Act, edit (verb)

 

Inhabit (verb)

Disinfect (verb)

 

 

 

 

Amaze (verb)

 

Drain (verb)

 

Explore (verb)

Organize (verb)

 

New word formed

 

Refusal (noun)

Dismissal (noun)

 

driver(noun)

Receiver(noun)

Actor, editor(noun)

 

Inhabitant(noun)

Disinfectant(noun)

 

 

 

Amazement(noun)

 

Drainage(noun)

 

Exploration(noun)

 

Organization(noun)

 

 

TOPIC:  SUMMARY WRITING

 

WHAT IS SUMMARY?

Summary involves writing down a brief and concise account of a long passage. In other words, summary can be described as a shortened form of a long passage after removing all irrelevant points from the main points and giving a short account of the passage using your own words.

In any summary exercise, there is always a piece of written prose which students are expected to read and understand. The ability of students to to comprehend and report accurately the main points in a passage is always tested through the summary questions set on the passage.

There are four main things students have to note in order to write a good summary. These are:

  1. Brevity:This demand that they must be brief and concise in their answers. There is no room for the use of flowery language or any other additional information aside from the main points.

 

  1. Relevance: This calls for a candidate’s answers to be relevant to the points mentioned in the passage. Students are not expected in summary writing to give any fact or point outside the passage, however relevant they think the fact or point is.
  2. Proper coverage of the passage:this demand that students must read and understand every aspect of the passage. This calls for proper understanding of the passage since the passage is unlikely to lend itself so easily to them.
  3. Clarity:This means that the students are expected to put down their answers correctly

HOW TO WRITE A GOOD SUMMARY

It is possible to score all the marks in summary in W.A.S.S.C.E, NECO and in any other examination, and it is also very easy to score zero. Students’ success in summary depends on how well they follow the procedure given to them on how to write a good summary. A student who fails to take the step-by-step approach to summary writing may end up flopping the whole exercise.

 

You are advice to take the following approaches in summary writing: READ THE PASSAGE VERY CAREFULLY:  

 

Most student fail summary simply because they fail to read the given passage carefully to understand it. You cannot write a good summary if you don’t understand the given passage. Most students feel that they can have a look at the questions first before reading the passage. This approach is wrong as this may tempt you to start reading the passage piecemeal within paragraphs, searching for where the answers are and thereby putting it down verbatim or word for word.

 

Writing a good summary demands that you read the passage very well so as to have a proper understanding of it before attempting to put down your answers. Having said this, reading and understanding the passage may take you more than one reading.

 

Firstly, reading the passage very quickly to know the subject matter of the passage. S.S.C.E summary passages are never titled. This is deliberate as it is meant to make students read through the passages and to forestall students’ attempt to guess at answers to the questions.

 

After the first reading, you can read the passage once again to intimate yourself better with the subject matter of the passage. After the second reading, you can then proceed to read the questions as this will provide an insight to what you will now focus your attention on when you are reading for the third time.

Re-read the passage for the third time and you can now underline or note where the required information for answering your question are. Of course, after the third reading, you should be ready to go back to the questions, and answer them.

 

HOW TO PUT DOWN SUMMARY ANSWERS.  

Write in sentences: summary answers should be written in sentences. When the student writes a preamble (A kind of introduction to his sentences) to his answers, the preamble must flow into the sentences.

 

For example, in a question where the student is asked to summarize the factors responsible for different levels of achievement in schools, the students will need to write a preamble to all his sentences. The preamble will be: “the factors responsible for different levels of achievement in school are……..” this can be followed by his sentences summarizing the factors. e.g. the factors responsible for different levels of achievement in schools are;

 

(I) where the school are located.

(ii) Some schools are located in privileged areas where others are not.

 

The above sentences are complete sentences because they have their distinct subjects and verbs and other elements of a sentence. Another important thing is that you should not write more than the number of the sentences you are asked to write. Where you are asked to write two sentences, don’t write one sentence or three sentences.

 

Short and concise answers: summary answers should be short and concise. Avoid the inclusion of irrelevant/ extraneous materials in every scoring answer. Limit your answers only to information available in the passage.

 

Use your words: in writing down your answers, make use of your own words and expression as much as possible. You are not expected to engage in middles lifting of words and expressions from the passage.

 

Use good grammar: summary answers should be written down in good grammar and expression. Make sure that your answers are devoid of grammatical and expression errors.

 

 

CAUSES OF LOSS OF MARKS IN SUMMARY WRITING.

 

Students lost marks heavily in summary exercises because they fail to adhere strictly to the principles and procedures guiding the practice of summary. A careless student will lose some marks because various penalties are imposed on every careless presentation of summary answers. The causes of loss of marks in summary writing are:

  1. Mindless lifting of words from the passage: This is a grievous offence in summary. Mindless lifting of a passage means copying down the answers verbatim, using the exact words and expression of the writer of the passage.  Firstly, it shows poor understanding of the passage and secondly, it means that the student cannot put down another person’s thoughts, points and ideas in his or her own expression. Indiscriminate lifting does not merit marks in a summary test; it only attract zero.

 

  1. Absence of conciseness and relevance:Conciseness and relevance are rigidly demanded in summary. Inclusion of irrelevant or extraneous and unnecessary material in every scoring answer will attract the penalty of deduction of one mark.
  • Phrases and incomplete sentences:  In summary, you are expected to write your answers in complete sentences with subjects, verb and probably other elements of a sentence present in them .When  a student writes phrases where complete sentence are demanded , the examiner will award 2 ½ marks instead of a mark of 5 for each of the scoring answers.
  1. Wrong preamble/introduction:In summary answer where the students write a wrong preamble which does not flow with his sentences, he or she can only score 21/2 marks instead of 5. Where the preamble taken with the rest of each answer makes a sentence, the student will score a full mark of 5.
  2. Writing two scoring point in one sentence: where a student writes two scoring points in one sentence, he or she will gets marks for the first one while the other point will be regarded as irrelevant by the examiner.
  3. Writing more  than required  number of sentences :Where a candidates writes more than the required number of sentences, the required number of sentences will be marked  and examiner will ignore others. The danger of this is that the scoring answers may be in those sentences the students writes in excess.
  • Grammatical/expression errors:with every grammatical and expression error, the students loses ½ marks.

 

You should be aware that one imposition of one penalty for an error does not preclude the imposition of another penalty for any other error committed even in one scoring answer. In other words, the imposition for inclusion of irrelevant or extraneous material in one scoring answer will not arouse pity in your examiner not to impose penalty for another error you committed in the same scoring answer. Therefore, you have to make sure that you practiced summary regularly so as to acquire the necessary skills and techniques of summary writing.

 

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

TOPIC: BANKING

 

There are two main types of banks in Nigeria. Some banks engage in commercial banking while others are involve purely in merchant banking.

 

Commercial banking is banks whose main liabilities are their share capital and deposits. The deposits are from domestics’ sources which include private individuals, companies and governments. These deposits are repayable on demand. Merchant banks are corporate entities. They do not deal with individual persons.

 

Money transmission is done through banks. Money transmission refers to transferring money from one person to another either through physical cash or by writing a cheque. Cash normally means coins and notes as oppose to cheques. A cheque is a written order to a bank usually made on a special printed sheet of paper supplied by the bank, to pay a certain sum of money from one’s bank account to another person.

 

An account holder is someone who has an account. An account holder opens an account by depositing some money with the bank.. this sum represents his  balance. When he writes a cheque, he reduces his balance. When he pays money into his account, he increases his balance.

 

A current account is an account from which money is withdrawn when you write a cheque. A deposit account is one where money that is not needed regularly may be left. The bank pays interest on money on a deposit account .your account is overdrawn if you take out money than you possesses in it. If an account is overdrawn the account is said to be in red .If you expect to pay out more money than you have got, you may be able to arrange with your bank manager for an overdraft.

 

The cheque consists of two parts: the cheque proper and the counterfoil on which you record, for your own information, the details of the cheque. If you write an open cheque, the payee, the person or organization whom you are paying will be handed the money over the counter .If the cheque is crossed, the money is credited to the payee’s account. A statement of account is a list of all the sums credited to your account and withdrawn from it.

 

EXERCISE

In the passage below, the numbered gaps indicate missing words. Against each number in the list below the passage are options labelled A-D. For each question, chose the word that is most suitable to fill the numbered gap in the passage.

 

Banking is an important 1   to trade in modern economy as it was in the medieval period. Apart from traders, individual can also    2   money  with banks for safe-keeping. Important documents like shares and bonds certificates can also be kept with reputable banks. Before the 3  of some banks recently, many people had  4  in the ability of banks to  5  the-hard earned  6   and  hope to have a good return on their  7 . Banks also serves as investment   8   agencies to individuals or corporate   9   and businessmen. The depositor can take 19   and   11   subject to availability of collateral and their reputation. Civil servants also patronize the banks to 12   their salaries and other    13  .  The banks maintain a tight security over depositors’ cash stashed in their   14   for safe keeping. Small scale investors can open a   15   account operated with  a cheque book, while for some deposits and withdrawals, a saving account operated with a  16   may be ideal.  17 money transfers is also possible nowadays with the use of computers and satellite.

 

 

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

 

A

Aid

Withdraw

Destruction

Confidence

Guard

Account

Business

Financing

Account

Capital

Borrowings

Collect

Agreement

Cabinets

Currency

Cheque book

Domestic

 

B

Aids

Deposit

Liquidity

Courage

Guide

Currency

Savings

Financier

Contributors

Contribution

Overdraft

Accept

Benefits

Vaults

Personal

Ledger

Electricity

 

C

Counsel

Donate

Liquidation

Faith

Overlook

Investment

Earnings

Financial

Customers

Loan

Capital

Withdraw

Entitlements

Drawers

Savings

Passbook

electronic

D

Function

Draw

Disruption

Insight

Safeguard

Money

Property

Finances

Investors

Deposits

Interest

Check

Loans

Wardrobes

Current

Voucher

Internal.

 

 

WEEK SEVEN

TOPIC: EXPOSITORY ESSAY

 

Expository essay aims at explaining a thing or the truth about a topic. Quite a number of topics fall under the category of expository essay.

 

Students may be asked to write on how a machine or equipment works or how to prepare a meal.it may also be how a certain location in your town or city can be found. The subject of expository essay also includes feature articles in newspapers or magazines which may demand that you go beyond stating facts or describing a thing to include making judgments on the thing. For instance, you may be asked to discuss the deterioration and lack of maintenance of the sanitary facilities in your area, and suggest way 0f improving them. This type of expository essay demands that you state some facts and then make your opinions and judgment known on the matter.

Useful Hints on How to Write a Good Expository Essay

  • Content:

Discuss at length the topic you are asked to discuss. In most cases, you are expected to unfold the bad and good consequences of the topic. For example, to satisfy your examiner on a question that asks you to discuss the deterioration and lack of maintenance of the sanitary facilities in your area, and suggest ways of improving them, you are expected to discuss at length the poor sanitary conditions in your area, give instances of such poor sanitary conditions and go further to proffer solutions to the problem. You will earn a good mark under content if you do all these.

  • Organization:
  • There should be an introduction and conclusion .the introduction must briefly explain the main idea of the essay and it must be followed by the body of the essay. Your points or ideas must be fully developed in the body of the essay. The conclusion which must come after the body of the essay should briefly sum up the main idea and make a conclusive statement on the topic.
  • You are expected to arrange your points or ideas in a logical sequence.
  • Your sentences should be a variety of long and short sentences.
  • Make use of phrases or word linkers to link your paragraphs with one another.
  • Expression:
  • For expository prose, clarity of expression is important. You must make sure that you state your facts, instances and points clearly.
  • Your vocabulary should be carefully for effectiveness, especially when you are writing on a topic that has a formal register.
  • Your language should be formal; you should avoid slangs, clichés, unidiomatic expressions and meaningless phrase.

ASSIGNMENT

Write an essay on how to improve family function through love, co-operation, communication, etc.

STRUCTURE:   Identification of type of sentences.

TYPES OF SENTENCE BY FUNCTION

The declarative/ assertive sentences

The imperative sentence

The interrogative sentence

The exclamatory sentence.

  • THE DECLARATIVE/ ASSERTIVE: is a statement of fact that declares or asserts what is true universally or habitually.

Examples:

Tinuade won the election

Bola plays a lot

Birds fly in the sky

THE IMPERATIVE SENTENCE: is used in giving commands

Example:

Get out of the class.

Leave out once.

Do as you are told.

 

  • THE INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE:as the name implies refers to questions asked in a direct manner

Examples:

 

Did you see the boy?

Where are you coming from?

Who are you looking for?

  • THE EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE:this is a statement that expresses emotions, like surprise, anger, joy, etc.

Examples:

It is good to see you!

You look gorgeous!

I am frustrated!

ASSIGNMENT: write out the types of sentence and give five examples each.

CLASS-WORK.

Identify the following sentences.

  • I gave Bukola a book.
  • When I received my salary, I went to Lagos where the Zoo was situated.
  • The night is dark and I am far from home.
  • She is a teacher and a writer.
  • My sister sent me a greeting.

WEEK EIGHT

TOPIC: PHRASES

Before a definition of a phrase is given, it is important to look at some expressions considered as examples of phrases and characteristics or features of the phrases.

Examples of phrases

  1. In the room
  2. The beautiful girl     no verb

                                                                                                                                           

  • To readwithout light
  1. radingwithout light
  2. Passingthe examination           –ing form of the verb
  • The broken bottle
  • The boiled yam                       -edand –en forms of the verb

FEATURES OF PHRASES

  1. A phrase is a group of words, e.g. the beautiful girl.
  2. A phrase does not make sense, e.g. in the room.
  3. A phrase may not have any verb, e.g. on the table.
  4. If there is a verb present in a phrase, the verb is always and must be a non-infinite verb, e.g. to read without light, reading without light, the boiled yam.
  5. A phrase only forms part of the sentence. In other words, none of the examples given above can stand on its own  . Other expressions must be added to them to have complete and meaningful sentences.

Examples:

  1. I saw the woman in the room
  2. To read withoutlight is not easy.
  • He told me to replace the broken bottle.
  1. Passing the examination involves hardworking.

DEFINATION OF THE PHRASES

From the examples and features of the phrase already given, the phrase can be defined as a group of words (with or without a non-finite verb) that does not make sense and which only forms part of a sentence.

NOTE: The issue of finite and non-finite verb is the major factor that distinguishes the phrase from the clause. Therefore, for an expression that has a verb to be identified as a phrase, a candidate must establish the following:

  • If the verb in the expression given is preceded by to, it meansthe verb is in-finite; therefore, the expression is a phrase.

Example: To pass the examination involves hard work

  • If the verb in the expression given is in the–ing form, the verb is non-finite; hence the expression is a phrase.

Example: giving to the poor attracts God’s blessing.

  • If the expression given is made to function as an adjective, it is a non-finite verb and the expression is a phrase.

Example: he told me to replace the broken bottle.

TOPIC: PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES

Preposition is the name given to that group of linking words which show the relationship between two nouns or pronouns.

Examples:

The train went through the tunnel.

“through “ shows the relationship between ‘train’ and ‘tunnel’.

The admiral was the son of a bishop.

‘of’ links ‘son’ with bishop.

Common preposition are:

About, above, across, after, against, along, mid, around, at, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyoun, by, down, except, for, from, in, inside, like, near, of, off, over, since, through, till, to, to, toward, under, until, up, upon, with, etc.

Some prepositions are compound: that is, they consist of more than one word.

Example: apart from, because of, due to, immune from, in front of, etc

FUNCTIONS OF THE PREPOSITION.

  1. It expresses relationship in time.

Examples:

  1. The bus will leave at midnight
  2. He was born in August, 1960.
  • I will see her on Sunday.
  1. To express the position of one thing to another.

Examples:

  1. They once live in Oyingbo.
  2. She has gone back to class.
  • We are connecting a flight from Lagos to Abuja.
  1. To express direction and destination.

Examples:

  1. They are going to the auditorium.
  2. We are heading towards the gate.

Prepositional phrases.

This is a group of words introduced by a preposition.

Example:

In the sea, beyond the river, after the operation, with six legs.

A prepositional phrase can do the work of an adjective or adverb.

Example:

He threw his clothes into the cupboard.

Into the cupboard is a prepositional phrase which is doing the work of an adverb of place.

ASPECT: Summary

TOPIC: Summarizing in a Specified Numbers of Words

Following the steps of good summary writing: reading for comprehension; identification of topic sentence; clarity of statement; brevity; conciseness; and originality; read the passage and practice the exercise in:

Evaluation: Attempt the questions on pages 184 and 185. 

WEEK NINE

TOPIC: STRUCTURE: IDIOMS

Idioms add beauty and charm any language. English is rich in idioms.

A few of them are listed with their meaning and usage.

A big gun – a person of great importance.

Example; Dangote is a big gun in Nigeria.

A black sheep    – an evil person

Example; we should beware of black sheep in society.

A beast of prey   – a beast that lives by killing and eating other animals.

Example: the tiger is a beast of prey

Apple pie order    – neat and clean

Example: you must arrange the books in apple pie order.

blue stocking   –   a lady who pretends to have literary taste .

Example: Lola is a blue stocking.

A chicken hearted fellow   – a cowardly person.

Example: my friend is a chicken hearted fellow.

A man of parts – a man of extraordinary qualities .

Example: the former president was a man of part.

A serpent in the egg- in the initial stage .

Example: terrorism is harmful to national integration, we should terminate the serpent in the egg.

An iron will –  a strong will.

Example: my mother is a woman of iron will.

Hush money -bribe.

Example: he got a job by paying hush money.

A henpecked husband – a husband who is in control of his wife.

Example; my uncle is a henpecked husband, he obeys his wife in everything.

A gala day – an important day.

Example: 1st October is a glad day in Nigerian history.

A fair weather friend – a false friend.

Example: it is a foolish thing to depend on a fair weather friend.

A fag end – the close. 

Example: we are at the fag end of poverty.

A man of straw – an important person

Example: no one respects my cousin because he is a man of straw

The olive branch.

Example: an offer of peace.

A white elephant –  a very expensive thing which proves to be a burden. 

Example; a journey by air is a white elephant for a poor man.

A white blanket   a person who discourages.

Example: my friends is a white blanket, he discourages me in everything.

To cry for the moon  –   to desire for what is impossible.

Example : My desire to mary Titi is nothing but crying for the moon.

To chew the end –  to meditate on an idea.

Example: he chewed the end of overcoming his poverty.

To be true to one’s salt   –  to prove faithful.

Example: she is true to her salt and served him sincerely for ten years.

To be like a fish out of water – to be in difficult situation.

Example: I felt like a fish out of water in America.

To cry over spilt milk- to regret for a past loss.

Example: it is really a foolish thing to cry over a spilt milk.

To eat the humble pie  –  to pocket an insult.

Example: when I failed in the exam, I had to eat the humble pie.

Between the devil and the deep sea- between two dangers.

Example: she was to either endure his brutality or discontinue her studies ; so she is in between the devil and the deep sea.

A bolt from the blue – an unexpected misfortune.

Example: Victoria death was a bolt from the bleu to me.

A wild goose chase  –  a foolish attempt.

 Example: Her desire to settle down in America is a wild goose chase for Funmi.

A clean slate –  a fresh beginning.

Example: she started with a clean slate in teaching.

A bull in a China shop-  an unnecessary person or evil.

Example: Amina is a bull in China shop because she creates tension among us with her arguments.

A tall  talk  –  a boastful talk.

Example: I am not convinced of his tall talk because there is no truth in it.

EVALUATION:  

Students evaluate the students by asking the questions.

Give the meaning of these idioms.

Cog in the machine

A slow coach

A sword of demoes

Penelope’s web

A storm in a tea cup.

ASSIGNMENT:

Give meaning and use in sentences the following phrasal verbs and idioms.

  • Throw up
  • Wind up
  • Sell off
  • Settle down
  • A broken reed
  • An apple of discord
  • A man of letters
  • An uphill task.

TOPIC: GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

There is a party- politics in all modern systems of government. The practice of the democratic system of government as been accepted as the only form of government  welcomed  and acceptable to the international organizations like the United Nations. A nation that refuses to practice democracy will be considered a pariah nation. The world seems to have rejected one-party system of government because it leads to the curtailment of individual liberty and promote dictatorship. A multi-party system of government is the acceptable form of government approved for states in the international system.

Multi-party system of government gives room for the citizens of a country to exercise their freedom to vote for the party of their choice. Political parties in this system present various lists of candidates to be voted for in elections. Each party prepares a manifesto telling the people what it promises to do if elected to power. Political campaigns for votes usually precede the period of election. During the campaigns, there are several public campaigns when the candidates have the opportunity to meet the electorates and tell them what he intends to do for them when he is voted into power. The candidates are also free to canvass for votes, they is, go from house to house soliciting support.

 

Elections are conducted by electoral bodies. The electoral bodies in charge of an election can call for nominations from the parties for election. It releases guidelines for the election and it can disqualify any candidates if, after screening, it discover the candidate not qualified to stand election. When the electoral chairman is satisfied that there are no electoral irregularities in the nominations of candidates, he declares them valid and then prepares an electoral list of all the candidates contesting the elections. The electoral list will be made public for public scrutiny.

 

The most acceptable form of voting  is voting by secret ballot which allows a voter to vote for the party and candidate of his choice secretly without any intimidation. The voters are guided on the day of election by party symbols which are usually displayed  at pulling booths. A voters has the right to collect  polling or voting papers which contain party symbols of the registered political parties. It is the duty of the polling officers in charge of each of each polling station or booth to ensure that no one votes more than once.  After each election, the polling officer has the right to count the used ballot papers and register the number of total votes against each of the political parties in the presence of the voters. The figure and the used papers and ballot boxes are carried to the counting Centre’s where the total vote cast  in all the booths are put together. The candidate with the largest number of votes will be declared the winner.

 

In parliamentary system of government we have an elected president who is the executive president who precedes over the affairs of the country. In every state, there are elected governors. Once a candidate is elected to go into the national assembly or the senate, he becomes a senator. However, a member of the state of assembly is addressed as honorable. A senator is expected to attend the meetings of the national assembly or the senate. The member of the house which presides over the meetings of the house is the speaker. The mace is the symbol of the authority of the house. The mace is placed on the table of the house in front of the speaker. The public gallery is a public place for any citizen who wishes to watch the proceedings of the house. There is another gallery for the press reporters.

 

It is the duty of the government to formulate policies for the state. The policies are presented before the house as bills. When the bills are read and accepted by the assembly they become acts. The acts become laws when the president signs it. Hansard contains all the official records of the speeches and debates made in the House.

 

 

EXERCISE:

In the following passage, the numbered gaps indicate missing words. Against each number in the list below the passage are options labelled A-D. For each questions,  choose the word  that is the most suitable  to fill the numbered gap in the passage.

 

With the most profound respect to the members of the senate, I do not think that it is within the competence of that     1 body to pass a motion to  2 the executive action of the president. The senate is  3 of the National Assembly. But it is not by itself alone the National Assembly. One can imagine the confusion which would be created if the 4 were to take a view diametrically oppose to that reflected in the senate resolution.

 

The strongest objection to the action of the senate is passing the resolution is the fact that it constituted itself the  5   as well as the judge if the constitutionality of the action of the president. The function of the senate is to  6  laws.  But the senate has no authority or  7   to control the president in the exercise of his   8   powers. It cannot by a mere resolution or motion give any directive to the president regarding the exercise of his powers nor can it undo what the president has done in the exercise of those powers. The only way in which the exercise of the powers of the president can be  9  is by   10  of the National Assembly.

 

A B                            C   D  
1ExecutiveAdministrativeLegislativeJudiciary
2OrderModifyEnforceNullify
3A portionA wingAn anchorAn arm
4Executive council JudiciaryHouse of RepresentativeNational   Assembly
5LitigantAttorneyDefendantPlaintiff
6ComposeCreateEnactAnnul
7Might ExecutiveDynamismPowerStrength
AuthoritativeOfficialJudicial
8RegulatedStandardizedModifiedOrdered
9A decreeA motionAn ActA bill.

 

WEEK TEN

TOPIC: SPEECH WORK- NASAL SOUND

Nasal Consonants

Nasals are consonants that are formed by blocking the oral passage and allowing the air to escape through the nose. Present-Day English has three nasals, all of which are voiced (vocal cords vibrating during the articulation of the nasal). (The nasals, the lateral /l/, the retroflex /r/, and the semivowels /w/ and /j/ are sometimes called the resonants.) A nasal consonant is a type of consonant produced with a lowered velum in the mouth, allowing air to come out through the nose, while the air is not allowed to pass through the mouth because something (like the tongue or the lips) is stopping it.

Two major things to be noted:

  1. The air is completely blocked from leaving the mouth, and is instead released out through the nose
  2. All three nasal sounds are voiced, meaning that the vocal cords vibrate during the creation of the sound

A subtle aspect of the n sound to be aware and attempt mastery of is: The n sound can become syllabic consonant on unstressed syllables.

  1. /m/(the phoneme spelled m in mail): (voiced) bilabial nasal.
    2. /n/ (the phoneme spelled n in nail): (voiced) alveolar nasal.
    3. /ŋ/ (the phoneme spelled ng in sing): (voiced) velar nasal.

The M consonant sound

The M consonant sound (/m/) is made by lightly pressing your lips together while making the sound with your vocal chords.  Although most of the air moves over your soft palate, some air moves through the nose, and it feels like it is vibrating through your nasal passage. This is why the M consonant is referred to as a nasal sound.

/m/ – mommouth, miss, may.

The N consonant sound

The N consonant sound (/n/) is made by moving air through the nasal passage. Your lips will be slightly parted. The tongue touches the roof your mouth just behind your teeth. You should feel a vibration in your nose.

/n/ – tiny, tennine, not

The ng consonant sound

You can’t study the N sound without also studying the ng sound (/ŋ/). This is the third nasal sound in English. It is also produced by moving air through your nasal passage, but the tongue placement is different than the N sound. Your tongue is raised and further back in your mouth.

/ŋ/ – sing, ring, bringing, long.

What Is an Adjectival Clause?

An adjectival clause is a dependent clause that, like an adjective, modifies a noun or pronoun. Adjective clauses begin with words such as that, when, where, who, whom, whose, which, and why.

An essential (or restrictive) adjective clause provides information that is necessary for identifying the word it modifies. A nonessential (or nonrestrictive) adjective clause provides additional information about the word it modifies, but the word’s meaning is already clear. Nonessential clauses are always set off with commas.

When deciding whether to include the word that or which in an adjective clause, remember to use that for essential clauses and which for nonessential clauses:

Essential clause:

The art class that Lucas takes focuses on design.

Adjective Clause Examples

We’re going to the beach that I like the best.

(That I like the best is an adjective clause. It contains the subject I and the verb like. The clause modifies the noun beach.)

Mr. Jackson is the teacher who helped me with my math problems.

(Who helped me with my math problems is an adjective clause. It contains the subject who and the verb helped. The clause modifies the noun teacher.)

The bad weather is the reason why I decided to drive instead of walk.

(Why I decided to drive instead of walk is an adjective clause. It contains the subject I and the verb decided. The clause modifies the noun reason.)

Mia is the person whose family owns a horse ranch.

(Whose family owns a horse ranch is an adjective clause. It contains the subject family and the verb owns. The clause modifies the noun person.)

This is the park where we can walk the dogs.

(Where we can walk the dogs is an adjective clause. It contains the subject we and the verb phrase can walk. The clause modifies the noun park.)

Do you remember the time when we almost missed the swim meet?

(When we almost missed the swim meet is an adjective clause. It contains the subject we and the verb missed. The clause modifies the noun time.)

Guillermo went to the studio where he takes glassblowing lessons.

(Where he takes glassblowing lessons is an adjective clause. It contains the subject he and the verb takes. The clause modifies the noun studio.)

 

TOPIC : TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION

One of the greatest achievements of man in society is the development of an efficient transport And communication system. Because of this development, goods produced on farms and in the factories are easily moved from places where they are produced to the markets where they are sold. Contacts between diferent groups, without the need for travel, has also been made possible with the development  of modern communication  equipment such as the telephone and telex.

The development of transport on wheels meant that roads needed to be built. It costs a lot of money to build motorways or highways because they have to cut  through forest, hills and rocks. Where there are rivers, bridges must be built. All materials  with which roads are built also have to be transported to the site.

The roads built and maintained by the Federal Government are called ‘ trunk A roads’ . those built and maintain by state  governments  are ‘ trunk B roads’. The ones built by local government authourities are classified ‘ trunk C roads’.

Within the townships, there are bus and taxi services. Such services are also available between one town and another. A lot of people are engaged in transport business. Transport by railways was first developed in Great Britain in the coal-mining areas of the north-east of England. Coal was initially used as fuel for trains which were powered by steam.

However, air transport is a very fast way of travelling but it is very expensive and so is used mainly to move people, small goods or those which might perish and therefore need quick transportation. Transport by air has gone through various stages of development. Today there is international cooperation in the use of airspace, airports and air-services. There are different types of aero planes and aircrafts. Concord , for example, travels at twice the speed of the aero plane called Boeing 747, which preceded it. Concorde is used on long journeys and mostly by businessmen. These are also jet-planes and piston-operated planes. Jet planes are mainly cargo- planes which can travel almost 600 miles an hour. They fly at higher altitudes than regular air planes. The piston-operated planes are more convenient for shorter journeys and they are slower and use less fuel.

The place where planes take-off and land is called airport. An international airport is more equipped than a local airport. Airport usually have maintenance shops for repair, fuel storage tanks and instruments for forecasting weather. They also have radar, light signals, control towers and other facilities to transmit and receive messages from planes in flight.

The person who flies an aircraft is called a pilot. The compartment in the plane for the pilot is the cockpit while the body of an aero plane is called the fuselage. The wings and tail are fitted into the fuselage and a plane also has the under  carriage and wheels. A plane runs on the runway before taking off, that is climbs steeply with is undercarriage locked up. The pilot navigates the plane, seers it first by compass and by an indication from a ground radio navigation system. He then moves the plane the clouds after attaining a sufficiently high attitude. Before taking off and landing, passengers are advised to fasten their safety belts by the crew. On a passenger flight an aircraft’s crew includes the captain, his co-pilot and navigator who occupy the flight deck. In the cabin the crew consists of stewards or stewardesses who attend to the passengers. After an emergency landing, passengers and crew can leave the plane by emergency exists. Normally passengers embark on ( or board) and disembark from a plane at an airport.

EXERCISE:

In the following passage, the numbered gaps indicate missing words. against each number in the list below the passage are options labelled A – D. For each question, chose the word that is the most suitable to fill the numbered gaps in the passage.

An airport consists of a large space where 1 are provided. 2 where aircraft are serviced and a  3. This contains the offices of the airport authority, facilities for passengers who are embarking or disembarking and a  4. In  5, the pilot must follow internationally recognized flight paths and when in the vicinity airport, must obey orders  6 to him by air traffic control from the airport  7 about the speed, direction and  8 of his plane. He is also informed about  9  along his 10  and at his  11.

 

ABCD
1SpeedwaysHighwaysRunwaysPlane-ways
2HangarsControl towersGaragesWorkshops
3Control buildingTerminal buildingTowersTerminal tower
4Airline towerHangersWeather controlControl tower
5RunningFlayingFlightPacking
6CommunicatedRadioedConveyedContracted
7Control towerLanding control towerRunwayHanger
8HeightAltitudeSpeedBalance
9Weather conditionCockpit conditionEngine conditionWings condition
10RoadWayRouteClouds
11DestinationBus-stopPlaceExit

 

Hope you got what you visited this page for? The above is the lesson note for English Language for SS2 class. However, you can download the free PDF file for record purposes.

If you have any questions as regards English Language lesson note For SS2 class, kindly send them to us via the comment section below and we shall respond accordingly as usual.

 

 

 

 

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