Agric lesson note for SS1 Second Term is now available for free. The State and Federal Ministry of Education has recommended unified lesson notes for all secondary schools in Nigeria, in other words, all private secondary schools in Nigeria must operate with the same lesson notes based on the scheme of work for Agric.
Agric lesson note for SS1 Second Term has been provided in detail here on schoolings.org
For prospective school owners, teachers, and assistant teachers, Agric lesson note is defined as a guideline that defines the contents and structure of Agric as a subject offered at SS level. The lesson note for Agric for SS stage maps out in clear terms, how the topics and subtopics for a particular subject, group works and practical, discussions and assessment strategies, tests, and homework ought to be structured in order to fit in perfectly, the approved academic activities for the session.
To further emphasize the importance of this document, the curriculum for Agric spells out the complete guide on all academic subjects in theory and practical. It is used to ensure that the learning purposes, aims, and objectives of the subject meant for that class are successfully achieved.
Agric Lesson note for SS1 carries the same aims and objectives but might be portrayed differently based on how it is written or based on how you structure your lesson note. Check how to write lesson notes as this would help make yours unique.
The SS1 Agric lesson note provided here is in line with the current scheme of work hence, would go a long way in not just helping the teachers in carefully breaking down the subject, topics, and subtopics but also, devising more practical ways of achieving the aim and objective of the subject.
The sudden increase in the search for SS1 Agric lesson note for Second Term is expected because every term, tutors are in need of a robust lesson note that carries all topics in the curriculum as this would go a long way in preparing students for the West African Secondary Examination.
This post is quite a lengthy one as it provides in full detail, the Agric-approved lesson note for all topics and sub-topics in Agric as a subject offered in SS1.
Please note that Agric lesson note for SS1 provided here for Second Term is approved by the Ministry of Education based on the scheme of work.
I made it free for tutors, parents, guardians, and students who want to read ahead of what is being taught in class.
SS1 Agric Lesson Note (Second Term) 2023
- S. 1
WEEK 1 & 2
TYPES OF CULTURAL PRACTICES
1.Clearing of Site: This involves the removal of all the substances (vegetation) covering the soil, such as tress, grasses and other plants and animal remains. The aim of bush clearing is to clear the existing vegetation in order to make cultivation and various farm operations easy.
2.Stumping: This is the removal of plant stumps and roots from the soil. Stumps are dugged up from the base of their roots so that they will not disturb the farm equipment during tillage operations (harrowing and ridging).
3.Ploughing: this involves the turning of the soil upside down. It breaks up the soil leaving it in large lumps or clods. Ploughing is the first operation in tillage. It can be done with a hoe, a spade, or a tractor driven plough.
4.Harrowing: This involves the breaking up of the soil in to smaller pieces after initial ploughing. This is called pulverization of sol. The disc harrow is more suitable for use in the tropical areas. For crops that do not require seed beds or ridges such as rice, planting can be done after harrowing.
5.Ridging: This is the process of making seed bed (ridges, heaps or mounds). Ridging can be done by using hoe or tractor driven ridger. Animals could also be used to drag ridger for ridge making.
Ridging is done normally across the slope of the land to prevent it from being washed away by erosion.
WEEK 3 – 4
MAIZE (Zea Mays)
Maize also called corn, is a member of grass family (Gramineae). It is a cereal crop which produces grains that can be used as food by human beings as well as livestock. The seed/fruit of maize is a caryopsis, i.e., it has its epicarp fused with the mesocarp.
This is done by clearing the land or bush with cutlass, making ridges or heaps manually with hoe, or mechanically by ploughing, harrowing, and ridging.
These include dent maize, fling corn, flour corn, pop corn, sweet corn and pod corn.
Climatic and Soil requirement
Maize requires a temperature of 26oc – 30Oc, rainfall of between 75cm – 150cm per annum and a well drained sandy loamy soil of pH6-7.
Method of propagation
Maize is propagated by seeds. The maize seeds can be panted manually by stick or cutlass, or mechanically by planter.
Early maize is planted between March/April and late maize is July/August. Maize (early or late) is planted depending on location and rainfall.
The quantity of seeds required to plant one hectare of land is 25kg-30kg/hectare; two to three seeds are also recommended per hole. Quantity of seeds used usually depends on spacing or plant population desired.
90cm x 30cm at one seed per hole or 75cm x 25cm at two seeds per hole.
Planting can be done manually, using cutlass or mechanically by planter at two or three seeds per hole at 2-4cm deep. Germination occurs four to seven days later.
a)Supplying: Replanting of seeds to replace those seeds that did not germinate
b)Thinning: Removal of weak plant form a stand to give rise to one or two vigorous crop plants.
c)Fertilizer Application: Apply N.P.K 15:15:15 (200kg/Ha) (four bags) at planting. Also apply 250kg (five bags) or 150kg (three bags) of urea per hectare, five to six weeks after planting. Farmyard manure, poultry dropping/organic manure can also be applied as side dressing or by broadcast method.
d)Weeding: This is done three to four times at regular intervals. Weeding can be done manually by hoeing, cutlassing, etc; or chemically with the use of specified herbicides; or mechanically with medicine
e)Control of pest and diseases: This is done anytime at regular intervals or prevents it completely, using appropriate chemicals.
This takes up to two or three months (60-90 days) for wet maize, three to four months (90-120 days) for dry maize after planting.
Maize can be harvested by hand, sickle or corn picker by combined harvester. Maize matures 90-120 days after planting. It is harvested either green or dry. It is mostly harvested green for consumption when the silk dries and turns brown. Maize is harvested by plucking the cobs on a small scale and by machine.
Processing and uses
Maize can be eaten either boiled or roasted or processed into corn flour, corn flakes or used for corn meal, beer, being flour and livestock feed.
Dried maize cobs can be stored either in cribs, rhumbus or in a fireplace, on a small scale or in silos, on a large scale.
Pests of maize
1.Stem borers: the larvae bore holes into young stems and destroy the tissue, leading to low yield or death of the plant.
Control: spray with insecticides like Vetox 85, and practise crop rotation
2.Grasshopper: They eat up the leaves and other soft vegetative parts of the plants.
Control: spray with appropriate chemicals such as DDT.
3.Maize Weevils: This is field to store pest. Adults and larvae bore hole into grains and reduce them to powder.
i.Fumigate the store with BHC powder or phostoxin tablets
Disease of maize
1.Corn smut: It is caused by a fungus (Ustilago maydis) which is spread by wind.
Symptoms: symptoms include galls on ears, leaves and tassels which later turn black.
i.Destroy diseased plants
ii.Use resistant varieties
iii.Treat seeds before planting
2.Maize rust: It is caused by a fungus (puccinia Polysora), they cause red spot on leaves which eventually die.
i.Uses resistant varieties
ii.Practise crop rotation
iii.Practise early planting
3.Leaf spot: It is caused by a fungus (physoderma spp) which is spread by wind.
Symptoms: These include the death of parts of the leaves.
i.Use resistant varieties
ii.Apply the appropriate fungicide
4.Maize streak: it is caused by a virus which is transmitted by a piercing and sucking insect (leaf hopper).
Symptoms: symtoms include yellow streaking of leaves followed by stunting of deformation.
i.Spray with insecticide to kill vector
ii.Uproot and burn infected plant
iii.Practise early planting
RICE (Oryza sativa)
Rice is another popular cereal crop grown and consumed by nearly half of the world’s population. It is also a member of the grass family (gramineae). The seed/fruit of rice is a caryopsis, i.e., it has its epicarp fused with the mesocarp.
This is done either manually, using cutlass to clear the bush and remove stump and hoe to make ridges, or mechanically by ploughing, harrowing and ridging.
Varieties or cultivars
These include the swamp rice (toma, BG79 and GFBW4) and the upland rice (Agbede).
Climatic and soil requirement
Rice requires a temperature of over 200C, 75cm – 120cm of rainfall for upland rice and over 250cm for swamp rice, and light fertile soil.
Method of propagation
Rice is propagated by seed. Rice can be propagated manually or mechanically.
65kg/ha at two to three seeds per hole
Rice is planted in southern Nigeria around April and May, and between August and September in the north.
Rice can be planted by broadcasting, sowing or drilling of the seeds at 2-4cm deep.
Swamp rice requires nursery which is done in fertile, water-soaked soil, seed are broadcast and germination begins after four to five days and the seedling are transplanted at between seven to eight weeks of growth to the field. Seeds are sown in nursery around May-June and transplanted in July-August to the field.
25cm – 30cm apart, depending on variety.
a)Supplying and thinning
These can be done where applicable.
Apply 150kg or three bags of N.P.K fertilizer per hectare at planting by broadcasting
Weeding is done to ensure rapid growth of rice.
d)Pest and disease
These should be prevented or controlled by spraying with appropriate chemicals.
Rice matures in four to seven months depending of variety.
Red heads of rice are cut off with knife, sickle or combined harvester.
Processing of rice
This is done immediately after harvesting for three to four days.
This is the separation of the grains form the stalk by either beating with stick, threading with feet or by the use of mechanical threshers.
After threshing, the chaff or unwanted dust and remains of stalks are removed by winnowing. This is a fanning operation usually done by throwing the grains in the air to blow away the dust and other residues.
After winnowing, the grains of rice remain enclosed by the husk to form what is called paddy.
This process is used to reduce the breakage of grains during pounding. It also brings some vitamins to the outer layer of the grains and it also reduces the labour required to remove the husks. The paddy rice is heated putting it into boiling water for about 12-15 hours. The rice swells and the husks are forced apart. The parboiled rice is now sun-dried.
This is the removal of the husks from the grains. The grains are pounded gently to remove the expanded husks. The husks are then separated from the rice by winnowing.
In some cases, the paddy rice is threshed by machine, and polished. Polishing involves the use of specially designed machines to remove the husks and other layers covering the grains. The portion removed is known as rice bran which is very rich in protein and vitamins. Consumption of polished rice may cause vitamin deficiency disease called beri-beri due to the removal of the bran rich in protein.
Storage: Rice can be stored as paddy rice or in processed in silos or jute bags.
1.Birds: These pests feed on the grains, leading to low yield of rice
Control: (i) employ children to scare the birds, (ii) use scare cows; (iii) early harvesting
2.Rodents: Cane rat and grasscutter cut the plants and seedling on the field leading to great loss.
Control: (i) set or use traps; (ii) fence round the farm
3.Rice weevils: This is a store pest. Adults and larvae bore into the grains and reduce them to powder.
Control: (i) fumigate store with phostoxin tablets
Diseases of rice
1.Rice Smut: it is caused by a fungus, (Tilletia Horrida) which is spread by wind. The grains turn into a mass of black spores.
Control: (i) Use resistant varieties; (ii) Use recommended fungicides to spray the crops.
2.Rice blight: It is caused by a fungus, (Piricularia Oryzae) spread through the soil. Longitudinal red or yellow spots develop on the leaves, leading to poor yield.
Control: (i) Avoid the use of heavy nitrogen fertilizer; (ii) use resistant varieties; (ii) use clean seeds.
3.Brown leaf spot: It is caused by a fungus. It causes small narrow brown spots which appear on the leaves.
Control: (i) Plant resistant varieties (ii) uproot and burn infected plants.
YAM (Dioscorea spp)
Yam belongs to the family Dioscoreaceae. It is a root and tuber crop popularly grown in West Africa and it is rich in carbohydrates.
Land preparation: Cutlass is used to clear the bush or vegetation and heaps, ridges or mounds are made with hoe. It can also be done by ploughing, harrowing and ridging mechanically.
Varieties or Cultivar: Important varieties include:
i.Dioscorea rotundata – white yam.
ii.Dioscorea alata – water yam
iii.Dioscorea bulbifera – aerial yam
iv.Dioscorea cayenesis – yellow yam
v.Dioscorea domentorum – bitter yam.
Climatic and soil requirement: Yam requires a temperature of 25oC – 30oC; rainfall of between 100cm – 180cm per annum; abundant sunshine and; a well drained sandy-loamy soil, rich in humus.
Method of propagation/propagation
Materials: Yam is propagated by the following materials: yam sets, yam seeds or yam minisetts.
Seedrate: One seed yam or sett per hole; three to five tones of seed yam per hectare is required.
Planting dates: Early yam is planted between November and December, while late yam is planted between March and April.
Planting: Open a hole on the heap. Place one yam sett inside with the cut surface turned upward and slantly placed at an angle of 45o before covering it with soil. The cut yam sett should be dried under the sun and dusted with chemicals, e.g, addrin dust, before planting. This prevents rottening and past attack of the sett.
Spacing: Spacing is 90cm x 100cm, while yam mini-setts is 25cm x 100cm. sprouting occurs three to six weeks after planting.
i.Mulching: This is the covering of the heaps or ridges with dry leaves to reduce soil temperature, conserve soil moisture and prevent rottening of yam setts.
ii.Regular weeding: This should be done regularly to control pests and reduce weed competition with crops for nutrients.
iii.Application of fertilizer: Apply 200kg (four bags) of N.P.K. fertilizer per hectare three months after planting by ring method.
iv.Staking: The yam should be staked with strong sticks or bamboo. It ensures adequate exposure of the leaf surface to sunlight and increase yield.
v.Training of vine: This is done regularly after staking to ensure even spreading and neatness of the vines to receive sunlight.
Maturity period: Yam matures in 8-12 months after planting.
Harvesting: Dig the soil gently with cutlass to remove tuber from the soil
Process: Yam tubers are processed into yam powder or flour or consumed locally.
Storage: Yam tubers are stored in bans. It can also be stored in form of yam flour and in dried peeled yam tubers.
Pest of Yam
1.Yam tuber beetle: The beetles makes holes on tubers, resulting in low tuber marketability
Control: (i) apply insecticide like BHC at planting. (ii) Dust yam sett with aldrin dust (iii) Practise crop rotation
2.Yam shoot beetles: Young larvae cluster on vine tips. Adults feed on yam leaves and cause vine to die or defoliate.
Control: (i) Spray yam plant with insecticides, e.g., BHC (ii) by hand picking (iii) dust with chemical like agrocide 3 powder.
3.Rodents: Rat and rabbits eat up tubers.
Control: Set traps to catch the rodents
Disease of Yam
1.Yam mosaic disease: It caused by a virus which is transmitted by a piercing and sucking insect
Symptoms: Symptoms include a mosaic pattern and chlorosis of leaves. It causes stunting of affected plant.
Control: (i) Grow resistant varieties and (ii) Spray with insecticides.
2.Yam rot: It is caused by bacteria which are spread by splashes of rain and insects.
Symptoms: Liquid oozes out from infected tuber. White-brown emits with pungent odour.
Control: (i) Destroy all affected yam. (ii) Apply aldirn dust. (iii) Practise crop rotation
3.Yam leaf spot: It is caused by a fungus, (cerospora spp) which is spread a wind.
Symptoms: symptoms include dead spots on the leaves
Control: Spray yam plants with appropriate fungicides.
CASSAVA (Manihot spp)
Cassava just like yam, is a root and tuber crop. It has underground root which can be consumed by man and livestock animals after processing. It has other advantages over yam, in that it can grow in relatively poor soil and in low rainfall area. The root is also rich in carbohydrates.
Land preparation: The bush is cleared with cutlass. Stumping is done and hoe could be used to make heaps or ridges. Ploughing, harrowing and ridging can also be done mechanically.
Varieties/cultivars: There exist two main varieties: sweet cassava (Manihot palmate) and bitter cassava (Manihot utilissima). The latter contains some poisonous hydrocyanic acid in its roots.
Climatic and soil requirement: Cassava requires a temperature of 21oC-35oC, rainfall of 150cm – 200cm, a well-drained, rich friable, loamy soil. It can also grow in poor soil.
Method of propagation: By stem cuttings which are planted from March to September.
Planting date: Cassava sticks or cutting are planted from March to September.
Spacing: Cassava is spaced 1m by 1m
Planting: A stem cutting of 25-30cm long is pushed into the ridge or heap slantly at an angle of 45o and of it buried. Sprouting occurs 7-14 days later.
i.Weeding: This is done regularly.
ii.Fertilizers application: Apply 250kg/ha of N.P.K fertilizer four to six weeks after planting.
Maturity Period: This occurs between 8-15 months depending on varieties.
Harvesting: Use cutlass to remove some soil and pull the stem gently so that the tubers are pulled along or, use cassava puller.
Processing: Cassava is processed into garri, foofoo, flour or livestock feed.
Storage: Cassava is stored in processed form in sack as garri or foofoo.
Pests of Cassava
1.Variegate grasshopper: Adults and nymphts eat up the leaves and young stems of plant (complete defoliation)
2.Rodents: Rodents, like cane rats, bush rat and grasscutter, dig the ground and eat up the tubers.
Control: (i) Trapping (ii) Shooting with gun (iii) Wire fencing round the farm
Disease of Cassava
i.Cassava mosaic disease: It is caused by virus which is transmitted by a piercing and sucking insect (white flies)
Symptoms: Symptoms include vein clearing and distortion of the leaves and stunted plants
Control: (i) Grow resistant varieties (ii) uproot and burn infected plants (iii) use disease free planting materials
ii.Bacteria blight: It is caused by bacteria which are transmitted by infected cuttings.
Symptoms: These include angular, water soaked area of discoloured leaf tissue, blighting, wilting and reduction in yield.
Control: (i) Use resistant varieties. (ii) Use clean and disease-free stem cuttings.
iii.Angular leaf spot: It is caused by a fungus. Symptoms include spores which produce pale, brownish colour on affected leaves.
Control: (i) Spray with fungicide, e.g., Bordeaux misture.
COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata)
The cowpea is a member of the pulse or legumes. It belongs to the family called leguminosae. It is rich in proteins and is commonly fed on by man. The fruit of cowpea is called pod.
Land preparation: The land is cleared after which the thrash is packed. Weed-row burning can also be done. The land preparation is continued with stumping, ploughing, harrowing and ridging done in sequence.
Varieties/Cultivars: Erect type, creeping type, Ife brown, Ife bimpe, etc.
Climatic and Soil Requirement: Cowpea requires a temperature of 27oC – 35oC, rainfall of 60cm – 125cm per annum, abundant sunshine and a rich sandy loamy soil.
Method of propagation: by seeds.
Planting date: Early and late planting are in April and August respectively. In the South, early planting is April while late planting is August and September. In the North, late planting is July and August.
Seedrate: 20 – 25kg/ha.
Spacing: It depends on variety. For example, spacing for the spreading type is 25 x 90cm while the erect type is 30 x 75cm.
Planting: There should be seed dressing before planting. Planting can either be manual or mechanized. Seeds are planted directly on the field. Planting depth 2-4 cm is allowed. Planting rate is two or three seeds hole, while germination occurs between three to five days after planting.
i.Thinning: This can be done when the plants are about two to five weeks of age.
ii.Weeding: Weeding can be done manually on a small scale while herbicides can be applied on commercial scale. Weeding is usually carried out once or twice before the plant spread fully.
iii.Fertilizer application: Apply phosphatic fertilizer for nodulation and pod formation. Apply the fertilizer at land preparation or at planting. Rate of application should be 250kg or five bags per hectare.
Maturity period: Cowpea matures between three to four months after planting
Harvesting: Brown, mature or ripe pods are harvested by hand-picking. Early maturing varieties are harvested three months after planting while late maturing varieties are harvested after four months. Harvest mature dry pods before shattering.
Processing: Harvested pods are dried under the sun. shelling is done by beating the dry pods with sticks or by pounding lightly in a mortar on a small scale. Sheller are used on a large scale. Winnowing is carried out whereby broken shells or pods are removed from the beans. Extraneous matter like stones are later removed.
i.Ensure proper drying before storage
ii.Shelled beans are treated with insecticides before storage to prevent weevil’s attack.
iii.Shelled seeds are stored in bags or rhumbus on a small scale.
iv.Storage is done in silos on a large scale
v.Hermatic storage can be done in air tight containers.
Storage: The seeds are stored in jute bags.
Pest of Cowpea
1.Pod borers: Adults pierce or bore holes into fruits and stems and may inject toxic saliva.
Control: Spray with insecticide
2.Bean beetle (Cllosobruchus spp): This is a field-to-store pest. Adults and nymphs bore holes into seed, fed on them and turn them to powder, thereby reducing the quality and market value.
Controls: (i) Early harvesting of pods (ii) Fumigation of containers or store with fumigant like phostoxin tablets
3.Leaf Hoppers: They eat up the leaves, thereby causing low yield of crops.
Control: Spray plants with insecticides.
Disease of Cowpea
i.Cowpea mosaic disease: It is a viral disease which is transmitted by aphid or thrip. It causes stunting, reduces pod size and causes premature dropping of flowers.
Control: (i) Use resistant varieties. (ii) control insect vector by spraying with pesticides. (iii) remove and burn infected plants.
ii.Bacterial blight: It is caused by a bacterium which is spread by water. Infected leaves produce water-soaked spots which later enlarge and turn brown.
Control: (i) Use resistant varieties. (ii) use clan seeds when planting.
iii.Nematode disease: It is caused by a nematode transmitted through soil. It causes twisting, rolling of leaves, galls and rottening of roots.
Control: (i) Use resistant varieties. (ii) practise good cultural operations. (iii) treat soil with nematicide.
iv.Damping-off disease: This disease is caused by a fungus (phytophthora spp). It is transmitted through the hyphae in the soil. It results in the destruction of seedling in the soil.
Control: (i) Dress seeds with fungicides (ii) practise crop rotation (iii) Grow resistant varieties. (iv) Remove infected plants.
COTTON (Gossypium spp)
Cotton is a fibre crop and belongs to the plant family called malvaceae. It produces cotton lint, a white fibre used in textile industries.
Land Preparation: The land is cleared with cutlass or mechanically ploughed and harrowed to make it soft for planting of cotton seeds.
Varieties or cultivars: Gossypium hirsitum, Gosspium vitifolium, ishan type, samara, gosspium peruvianum (meko cotton).
Climatic and soil requirement: Cotton requires a temperature of 25oc – 35 oc, rainfall of 65cm – 125cm per annum, abundant sunlight and a very rich, deep, loamy or clay-loamy soil.
Method of propagation: By seeds
Planting Date: Cotton is planted in June and July in Northern Nigeria.
Seedrate: 20 – 15kg/ha.
Planting: Four to five seeds are sown per stand. These are later thinned to two seedlings per stand at 3cm deep.
i.Weeding: This is done at regular intervals.
ii.Fertilizer Application: Apply 125kg of super phosphate fertilizer at sowing time.
iii.Mulching: This prevent evaporation and controls erosion
Maturity period: Cotton matures within five to eight months after planting
Harvesting: Matured fruits (bolls) are handpicked and sun-dried.
Processing: Cotton for export is taken to a cotton ginnery after being dried. The seeds are then separated from teh live which is made into bales of 180kg either by hand or by bailing machines. The seeds are also packed for export.
Storage: Cotton is placed in sack containers and kept in dry place.
Pest of cotton
1.Cotton stainer (Dysdercus spp): it fees on the contents of the boll and also transmit bacterial and fungal disease. They stain the lints.
Control: By handpicking of the insects and regular spraying with insecticides.
2.Boll worms: The caterpillars (larvae) eat their way into the boll and spoil the lint.
Control: (i) This is done by handpicking. (ii) Destruction of infected plants.
Diseases of cotton
1.Bacteria blight: It is caused by a bacterium. Symptoms include angular spots which appear on the leaves and branches.
Control: (i) is by seed dressing. (ii) Destroy and burn infected plants (iii) grow resistant varieties.
2.Leaf curl: It is caused by a virus transmitted by an insect. Affected leaves become twisted, mottled, vein clearing and curl at the margin.
Control: (i) Plant resistant varieties (ii) Destroy infected plants by burning
3.Damping-off: It is caused by a fungus which is spread through the soil. Cells of seedling become waterlogged resulting in the death of the plants.
Control: (i) practices crop rotation (ii) grow resistant varieties
TOMATO (Lycopersicon esculentum)
Tomato is a vegetable crop commonly grown by peasant farmers in West Africa. The fruit called berry when ripe can be eaten raw, used for soup or stew preparation or in preparing vegetable salad and other food.
Land Preparation: Land is cleared with cutlass and ridges are made with local hoe, or land can be prepare by ploughing, harrowing and ridging.
Varieties/Cultivars: These include mone-maker, valiant, pork, dwarf gem, marglobe, ife plum, bonita, roma, local varieties.
Climatic and Soil Requirement:
Tomato requires a temperature of – , rainfall of 50 – 125cm, high level of sunshine and a well-drained loamy soil, rich in organic matter.
Method of Propagation: These are seeds which can be by drilling or broadcasting.
Planting Date: Tomato is planted in early September and October.
Seedrate: 5 – 10kg of seeds/ha
i.It is done on ground, beds or seed boxes/trays with top soil, thoroughly mixed and watered.
ii.Seeds are sown in drills, 5cm apart and 2.5cmm deep.
iii.Shading, mulching, weeding and watering are done.
iv.Nursery lasts for three weeks when the plants are at the three-leaved stage.
Spacing: (i) 60cm x 60cm without staking (ii) 50cm x 30cm with staking
Transplanting: Seedling with four to five leaves, 15cm – 20cm tall and about 25-30 days old are transplanted with ball of earth. Holes measuring 5 cm deep are dug and seedlings are transplanted to the field either in the morning or evening.
i.Weeding: This should be done at regular intervals.
ii.Watering: soon after transplanting, seedlings should be watered every morning and evening till the plants are able to stand on their own.
iii.Fertilizer Application: Apply N.P.K 15:15:15 fertilizer to each plant three weeks after transplanting at 250kg/hectare; or apply any organic manure like compst or farm yard manure at 30-40metic tones per hectare.
iv.Staking: Provide stakes to enable plants stand erect and prevent lodging. Stems are tied or trained to the stakes. Staking allows for good fruiting and keeps fruits from disease attack arising from contact with soil. Staking should be done before flowering.
v.Maturity Period: This occurs between two to four months after planting.
vi.Harvesting: Matured or ripe fruits are harvested by hand picking and stored in dry, cool place. Harvesting starts as from two months.
vii.Processing: Tomato is either used or consumed after harvesting, or, it can be processed into tomato juice or paste.
viii.Storage: it can be stored as canned paste.
Pests of Tomato
(i) Cricket and Beetle: These eat up leaves or cut off young seedlings and cause damage to crops
Control: Spray with insecticides e.g vetox 85.
Diseases of Tomato
- Fusarium Wilt (root rot): It is a funal disease (fusarium oxysporium) which is spread by wind.
Symptoms: These include gradual dropping of leaves followed by wilting and drying up of leaves of the whole plant.
Control: (i) Treat soil with copper fungicide. (ii) Practice crop rotation.
- Root knot disease: It is caused by a nematode. Roots develop galls or knots with yellow, curled leaves and dwarf plants.
Control: (i) Treat soil with nematicide (ii) plant resistance varieties (iii) crop rotation
- Bacterial wilt: This is caused by a bacterium called pseudomonas solaraceurium. It is transmitted through the soil and it attacks roots.
Symptoms: Symptoms include wilting of the leaf, death of the affected plant, and slimy exudation from the stem.
Control: (i) Practice crop rotation (ii) Avoid infected soil
- Leaf spot disease: This disease is caused by a fungus called chadosporium spp. It is an air-bone disease in which the spores are deposited on leaves.
Symptoms: Symptoms include circular white patches which appear on the leaves. Dead spots also appear on the leaves.
Control: (i) Use copper fungicides like perenox and Bordeaux mixture
(ii) Practise crop rotation
(iii) Use resistant varieties.
OKRA (A belmoscus esculentus)
Okra is also a vegetable crop commonly grown by local farmers in West Africa. The fruits called capsule, when young, are harvested with knife and used in soup preparation.
Land preparation: The bush is cleared with cutlass while ridges or heaps are constructed with hoes. Alternatively, the land can be prepared by ploughing, harrowing and ridging.
Varieties/Cultivars: New lad’s finger and the perkin’s log pod.
Climatic and Soil requirement: Okra requires a temperature of 18oc – 30oc, rainfall of 100cm-150cm per annum and a well drained loamy soil.
Method of propagation: By seeds
Planting date: Early April and May
Spacing: 60cm x 60cm
Planting: Seeds are planted directly into beds, two to three seeds per hole which should be 3cm deep. Germination occurs as from the 5th day after planting.
(i) Thinning and supplying: These can be done where necessary
(ii) Fertilizer application: Super phosphate fertilizer at 100kg/hectare is required. Ring application is used.
(iii) Weeding: This should be done regularly.
Maturity period: This occurs between three and seven months depending on varieties.
Harvesting: The young and succulent green immature fruits are plucked or harvested with knife. Harvesting is done over a long period of time.
Processing: The fruits are used as food.
Storage: The fresh fruits are stored in a cool place, e.g refrigerator or the dried ones are stored in sacks.
Pest of Okra
(1) Flea beetles: These insects attack the plants and eat up the leaves. This they do by putting holes on the leaves as they eat them.
Control: spray with insecticides
(2) Cricket and grasshoppers:
These insects also defoliate the plant by eating up the leaves and young stems.
Control: Spray with insecticides to kill vector.
(ii) uproot and burn infected plants
ORANGE (Citrus sinensis)
Orange is a fruit crop which belongs to the citrus family. The fruit of orange called berry is succulent, fleshy and juicy and it is rich in vitamins and minerals.
Land preparation: The Land is cleared with cutlass and stumping is done. The land is then ploughed and harrowed mechanically.
Varieties/Cultivars: Varieties of the citrus spp. or family include:
S/N Varieties Botanical names
- Sweet Orange Citrus sinensis
- Sour orange Citrus aurantium
- Lime Citrus aurantifolia
- Lemon Citrus limon
- Tangerine Citrus reticulate
- Grape fruit Citrus paradise
- Shaddock (pomelo) Citrus grandis
- King orange Citrus nobilis
Climatic and soil requirement: Sweet Orange requires a temperature of , rainfall of 75cm – 125cm per anum and a well-drained fertile and deep soil. It also requires a higher elevation and slightly sloping land.
Planting materials: (i) seeds (ii) Budded seedlings (iii) Grafted seedlins
Method of Propagation: Sexually (by seeds) and vegetative propagation e.g budding.
Planting date: (i) Pre-nursery is ideal between October and December and Nursery in April and May. (iii) Budding is done a year later.
(ii) nursery is 60cm x 60cm and
(iii) field is 7.0m x 7.0m
Pre-nursery: (i) The seeds are raised in seed trays by October – December in a loamy soil, rich in organic matter.
(ii) the seeds are sown 3cm x 3cm at 2cm deep.
Nursery: (i) The seedlings are now replanted at 60cm x 60cm spacing
(ii) it is planted around April and May.
(iii) Watering, weeding and shading are provided.
(iv) Budding and grafting are done a year later.
Transplanting: After one year of budding, the seedlings are transplanted to the field at a spacing of 7.0m x 7.0m
(i) Weeding: This is done regularly by cutlassing or by herbicides.
(ii) Fertilizer application: Sulphate of ammonium at the rate of 350kg/ha is applied by ring method at regular intervals.
(iii) Mulching is also done during dry season.
(iv) irrigation, especially during dry season, is also practiced
(v) Pruning can also be done
(vi) Insects and diseases should be controlled and prevented
Maturity Period: This occurs between three and seven years
Harvesting: Clean or spot-picking of matured or ripe fruits with hand or harvesting knife is done carefully and over a period of time.
Processing and Storage: Orange can be processed into orange juice which can be stored in canned or bottled form.
Pest of Orange
(1) Thrips (2) Red Mites (3) Scale insects (4) Aphids (5) Fruit borers (6) Caterpillars.
All these pests attack citrus leaves, flowers and fruits.
Control: Spray with insecticides like Gammalin 20 and Malathion.
(7) Leafhoppers: These attack citrus leaves, leading to defoliation and reduced yield.
Control: By handpicking; (ii) use poison baits.
Diseases of Orange
(1) Gummosis: It is caused by a fungus phytophthora spp. which is spread by air and through the soil. Symptoms of the disease include rottening of the bark near the gound, drying and cracking of bark, release (exude) of gum or slimy substance and leaves turns yellow and begin to die back.
Control: (i) Use resistant varieties (ii) Spray with approximate fungicides. (iii) paint the trunk with crude carbolic water.
(2) Tristeza: It is a viral disease transmitted by aphid. Symptoms include phloem necrosis and swelling at bud union.
Control: Use resistant varieties.
(3) Cirtus Scab: It is a fungal disease, (sphaceloma Faucett) which spreads within the soil. It attacks young leaves and stem, especially in nursery stage.
Control: Treat with fungicide, e.g, Bordeaux mixture.
BANANA (Musa spp.)
Land Preparation: Clearing of the land which is followed by stumping and making of ridges or heaps.
It can also be done mechanically through ploughing, harrowing and ridging.
Varieties/Cultivars: Gross Michel; Cavendish (dwarf); red banana; canary banana.
Climatic and soil requirement: Banana plant requires a temperature of , rainfall of 150cm – 200cm per annum and a well drained, rich loamy soil.
Planting Materials: These are corm (or bits), peeper suckers, sword sucker and maiden sucker.
Propagation/Planting date: Banana is propagated by vegetative means any time from April to September. Dig a hole and plant the sucker with ball of earth. The hole should be 60cm x 60cm. the holes are filled with soil mixed with organic matter.
Spacing: 4m x 4m
i.Weeding: This should be done regularly to prevent competition with crops for nutrients.
ii.Mulching: This should be done to prevent evaporation
iii.Fertilizer Application: Apply muriate of potash 25kg/ha by ring method at regular intervals.
iv.Pruning: This should be done to avoid over-population per stand.
v.Pests and other insects should be controlled
Maturity Period: it matures between 12-18 months, depending on the variety.
Harvesting: A bunch of banana is harvested when the fruit is severed from the bunch stalk by using cutlass. At times, the pseudo-stem is cut until the tree falls.
Processing/Storage: Banana is either eaten raw when ripe or can be processed into juice which is stored in cans. The ripe fruit can be stored temporarily in refrigerator.
Pests of Banana
(i) Stem Borer: The larvae of some insects bore into and destroy the tissue of the plant.
Control: (i) Apply dieldrin dust or furadan.
(ii) Nematode: It makes the root of banana to grow galls or knots, leading to poor growth.
Control: Use appropriate nematicide.
(iii) Rats and Monkeys: These eat up the matured or ripe fruits.
Control: (i) Use poison baits (ii) Set traps.
(iii) Harvest ripe fruit early.
Diseases of Banana
(i) Panama disease: it is caused by fungus (Fusarium oxysperum) which is spread through the soil. Symptoms include collapsing of the petiole and withering of the leaves.
Control: (i) Use resistant varieties. (ii) Spray with fungicide
(ii) Leaf spot (or Sigatoka) disease: It is caused by a fungus (cercospora mycosiphaerella) which is transmitted by air or wind. Symptoms include yellow or brown chlorotic spots which later unite to form or bind lateral to parallel vein.
Control: Spray with fungicide, e.g. Bordeaux mixture
(iii) Bunchy top disease: it is caused by a virus transmitted by an insect. Symptoms include stunted plant with crowded leaves having curled edges.
Control: Ensure field sanitation. (ii) Bury or burn infected plants
COCOA (Theobroma Cacao)
Cocoa is a beverage crop used in the preparation of many food drinks like ovaltine, bournvita, pronto, etc in Nigeria. It belongs to the plant family called sterculiaceae. The fruit is called cocoa pod.
Land Preparation: The land is cleared with cutlass, after which stumping is done. The land can also be prepared by ploughing and harrowing. Cocoa planted on flat lands does not need ridges.
Cultivars or Varieties: Amelonado, Amazon Criollo Trinitario and hybrids.
(a) Amelonado: This produces pods that are lightly furrowed with a round end. The pods are green when unripe and become yellow when ripe.
(b) Amazon: This produce pods with long, rough and thick hardwalls, deeply furrowed with a pointed end. The pods are green when mature and become yellow when ripe.
(c) Criollo: This produces a high quality bean but the pods are liable to attack by black pod disease.
Climatic and soil requirement: Cocoa plant requires temperature, rainfall of 114cm-200cm per anum and a deep, fertile well drained loam-clayey soil which is slightly acidic and can retain moisture.
Method of Propagation: (i) This is mainly by seeds; (ii) vegetatively by budding and stem cutting.
Planting dates: Nursery is done October to January. Field (transplanting) between April and June.
Spacing: Nursery:20cm x 20cm;
Field: 3m x 3m
i.Loamy soil containing organic matter are used to fill up polythene bags.
ii.Seeds are sown in the polythene bag (one seed per bag).
iii.Shade is provided to prevent direct heating by the sun
iv.Watering is done twice daily-every morning and evening.
v.Regular weeding is also carried out.
vi.Transplanting: Cocoa seedlings are transplanted to the field as from April during the rainy season, i.e five to six months after planting in the nursery. The seedlings are carefully removed from the polythene bag with ball of earth and are placed in a hole which is about 45cm deep. The hole is covered gently and firmly round the seedling. Some crops like banana, cocoyam are allowed to grow along side with cocoa seedlings to provide a temporary shade for the cocoa plants.
i.Weeding: This should be done regularly.
ii.Shading: Some crops like banana, cocoyam should be grown to provide shades to cocoa seedlings.
iii.Fertilizer application: Urea or sulphate of ammonia is applied at 3000kg/ha when the plant is about 8-12 weeks old on the field.
iv.Mulching: This should be done by growing cover crops like calopogonium to cover the soil.
v.Pruning: This is also done by removing the lower branches. Pruning encourages better canopy formation, more light penetration and improved air movement.
vi.Maturity period: Cocoa plant matures within three to five years.
vii.Harvesting: Ripe or mature cocoa pod is harvested by carefully cutting off the pod from the tree, using sharp cutlass, harvesting knife or sickle without damage to the flower cushion.
(i) Breaking of pods: The pods are carefully opened with a blunt cutlass or by hitting tehm with heavy rod to remove the cocoa beans.
(ii) Fermentation: Cocoa beans can be fermented by using the sweat box or tray method for about five days. During the fermentation process, cocoa beans undergo chemical changes brought about by the action of heat. The beans change to a red brown colour and develop the characteristic chocolate favour. The Theobromine is one of the properties of fermentation. This substance gives cocoa its stimulating property.
Drying: After fermentation, the bean seeds are now dried under the sun for 6-10 days or dryers may be used.
Storage: Properly dried beans are stored in sacks or jute bags ready for export.
Pests of Cocoa
(1) Cocoa capsids: These insects pierce and such sap from young shoots causing reduced yield.
Control: Spray with insecticides like Gammalin 20 or Didimac 25.
- Mealy bugs: They are vectors or carriers of the virus that cause swollen shoot disease through their biting and sucking of shoots and fruits.
Control: Spray with insecticides, e.g, Gammalin 20.
Diseases of Cocoa
(1) Black pod disease: It is caused by a fungus (Phytophthora palmivora), which is spread by rain splash. Symptoms include brown spores on fruits covered by soaked, powdery spores which result in rotten black pod.
Control: (i) Remove and destroy infected pods,
(ii) Apply regular weeding. (iii) Spray with fungicides, e.g Bordeaux mixture or perenox;
(iv) burning of infected pods.
(2) Swollen Shoot Disease: It is caused by a virus which is transmitted by mealy bugs.
Symptoms include the swelling of branches, malformation of leaves and premature defoliation.
Control: (i) Destroy and burn infected plants. (ii) Spray with insecticides to kill the vector (mealy bugs). (iii) Plant resistant varieties.
PEPPER (Capsicum spp) Pepper is a spice crop which adds flavours to our stew and soup. It can be used when green or red. It is rich in vitamins and minerals. It belongs to the plant family, solanaceae.
Land Preparation: The bush is cleared and ridges or heaps are made with hoe. The land can also be prepared mechanically by ploughing, harrowing and ridging.
Varieties/Cultivars: Sweet pepper (Capsicum annum),, Chilli pepper, bird’s eye pepper (Capsicum frutescens).
Climatic and soil requirement: Pepper requires a temperature of – , rainfall of 100cm -150cm per annum and a rich well-drained loamy soil.
Method of propagation: This is by seeds.
Planting dates: (i) Nursery: February – March.
(ii) Transplanting (Field) – April/May.
Spacing: Nursery: 5cm by 5cm; Field: 60cm by 60cm
i.Seeds are drilled in seed boxes or trays containing top soil.
ii.Shade is provided
iii.Watering is done every morning and evening
iv.Weeding is done regularly.
Planting: This is done when plant is 10cm-15cm tall. Transplanting is done with ball of earth on the root to the field around April and May.
i.Weeding: This is done regularly
ii.Mulching: This should be done to conserve moisture in the soil.
iii.Fertilizer application: Apply 100kg/ha of ammonium sulphate by ring method.
Maturity Period: it matures between two and three months.
Harvesting: Pepper (ripe or unripe) can be harvested with hand or with knife.
Processing and storage: Ripe fruits can be dried or cured day and night for 6-14 days. Dried fruits are stored in sacks and kept in warm places.
Pests of Pepper
(i) Crickets and grasshoppers attack plants and eat up the leaves.
Control: Spray with insecticides.
Diseases of pepper
(1) Leaf spot: it is caused by a fungus.
Symptoms: Symptoms include spotting of leaves of young plants in nursery, resulting in decay of flowers and leaves.
Control: Spray with insecticides.
(2) Damping off: It is a fungal disease spread by water. The leaves wither gradually and dry off.
Control: Seeds should not be sown very close to each other. (ii) Spray with copper fungicides.
(3) Leaf Curl: It is caused by a virus which is transmitted by an insect.
Symptoms: Symptoms include wrinkling of the leaves and stunted growth.
Control: (i) Spray with insecticide to kill vector.
(ii) Uproot and burn infected plant. (iii) practice crop rotation
OIL PALM (Elaeis guineensis)
The oil palm belongs to the plant family called palmea or palm family. On commercial basis, both the oil and the kernel are important. The oil is obtained from the mesocarp and the kernel from the endocarp. The fruit is called a drupe. Oil palm is an oil crop.
Land Preparation: The land is cleared and hoe is used to make heaps or ridges. Flat land can be used for growing oil palm. Land can also be prepared mechanically by ploughing, harrowing and ridging.
Varieties/Cultivars: Dura, pisifera and tenera.
(i) Dura: This variety has a thin mesocarp, thick endocarp (shell) with a large kernel. It is genetically homozygous and represented by DD.
(ii) Pisifera: This variety has a thick mesocarp (i.e. it contains very little oil content), absence of endocarp (no shell) with small kernel. It is genetically homozygous recessive for shell. It is represented by dd.
(iii) Tenera: This variety has a thick mesocarp, thin endocarp with moderate sized kernel. It is a cross between dura and pisifera. It is capable of producing both the oil and the kernel. It is genetically heterozygous and it is represented by Dd
Climatic and soil requirement: Oil palm requires a temperature of 18oc – 27oc, rainfall of 150cm – 200cm per annum, a deep loamy soil, rich in organic matter, and a slightly acidic soil of pH4.5-6.
Method of Propagation: By seeds
Planting Dates: (i) Pre-nursery: August – October (ii) Nursery: 9 months later (iii) Field: March – May (a year after)
Seedrate: 120-150 seeds/ha.
Germination of Seeds: Seeds are soaked in water for seven day, the water being changed daily. After seven days, the seeds are place in the shade ofr 24 hours to dry before being bagged (500 per bag) in polythene bags. They are then sent to the germinator which has a temperature of 39oc (102oF) for 80 days. Soaking then begins again and continues for seven dyas, the water being changed daily. The seeds are then dried under shade for two hours before being sent to the cooling house. After about two weeks, germination begins.
This method produces a germination percentage of 85-90%
i.Seed boxes or tray are filled with top soil, rich in humus.
ii.The seeds are sown at a spacing of 7.0cm by 7.0cm
iii.Shades are provided
iv.Watering is done in the morning and evening
v.Mulching should be done
vi.Pre-nursery lasts for four to five months before they are transferred to the nursery.
i.It requires a level, well-drained, loamy soil
ii.The nursery is ploughed and harrowed or polythene bags are used
iii.Planting is done early April during which the seedling are removed with a ball-of-earth
iv.Spacing of 60cm by 60cm is required.
v.Watering weeding and mulching are done.
i.It is done after one year of seedling in the nursery (April – May)
ii.It is done with a ball-of-earth on the roots.
iii.A spacing of 9m by 9m triangular form is required in a hole of 4.5cm deep on t he field
iv.The roots are trimmed to encourage the development of new ones.
i.Weeding: This should be done regularly, using cutlass or herbicides, e.g., Gramoxone.
ii.Fertilizer Application: Apply N.P.K 15:15:!5 fertilizer at the rate of 800kg/ha
iii.Cover crops: This should be planted to prevent erosion, evaporation and to add nutrients
iv.Pruning: This should be done regularly.
Maturity period: This is between three to seven years.
Harvesting: Mature bunches are harvested when the fruits are red or dark – red in colour. The bunch is harvested with a cutlass or harvesting knife.
Processing: Oil palm fruit can be processed in two ways”
i.Traditional method: The fruits are boiled after which they are pounded in a mortar. The fibres and nuts are removed and the oil is separated from the residue by floating after mixing with water. The crude liquid is reboiled and the oil is carefully separated. The oil is later re-heated to eliminate any trace of water.
ii.Modern Method: This involves the extraction of oil with machines. The boiled fruits are macerated to separate the oil form the fiber and the kernel. Hand-screw press or the hand-hydraulic press is used to press the mixture. The oil is cleansed by allowing the mixture to settle and then boiled after the sludge and water have been remove. The oil is reheated to remove any traces of water storage. The palm oil is stored in aluminum or large plastic containers, drum, tankers, tins or bottles while the kernels, are cracked, dried and stored either for local consumption or for export.
GRADES OF PALMOIL
Palm oil is graded into three major categories based on the quantity of free fatty acids (FFA) present in the oil.
The three major grades are:
i.Soft oil – it has low free fatty acid (FFA)
ii.Hard oil – It has high free fatty acid (FFA)
iii.Special oil – it has very low free fatty acid (FFA)
PEST OF OIL PALM
i.Rodents: Rodents, like rats, squirrel, bush rats, dig up and eat the seeds in the pre-nursery stage.
Control: Use wire mesh to surround the nursery beds.
Diseases of Oil Palm
i.Blast Disease: It is caused by a fungus which is spread within the soil. Symptoms include yellow-coloured leaves with some brown patches on the leaves of seedling in nursery. It may lead to the death of the seedlings.
Control: (i) Regular watering and mulching of the nursery beds.
(ii) Spray at regular intervals with captain
ii.Anthracnose: It is also caused by a fungus. Symptoms of the disease include black and brown patches on the surfaces of leaves in pre-nursery.
Control: (i) ensure adequate spacing within the pre-nursery. (ii) spray with captain or perenox
iii.Freckle Disease: It is caused by a fungus which can be spread by wind or air. It may develop in pre-nursery and later spread to nursery and the field, when it is not properly controlled.
Affected plants develop brown spots on the leaves.
Control: (i) Avoid infested soil. (ii) Practise crop rotation, especially in pre-nursery and nursery stages.
GROUNDNUT (Arachis Hypogea)
Groundnut is a dual-purpose crop. It can be cultivated as an oil crop. Although it is a leguminous crop, it is mainly grown for its oil.
The seed call nut contains about 40-55% oil, 30% protein and 18% carbohydrate industrial product of groundnut includes: (i) Groundnut cake (ii) Groundnut oil (iii) Groundnut butter.
Land preparation: The land is cleared stumping is done and land can also be prepared mechanically by ploughing, harrowing and ridging.
Varieties/Cultivars: Bunch or erect type, creeping type, Kano local, Kano 50 and castle carry.
Climatic and soil requirement: Groundnut requires a temperature of 25oc – 30oc, rainfall of 70 – 100 cm per annum.
Soil requirement: Groundnut requires a coarse texture sandy – lomy soil, which is slightly acidic to neutral, that is, pH range of 5-7. The soil should be rich in calcium and phosphorus which are needed for pod formation.
Method of propagation: This is by seeds
Planting Dates: March – April in the South and May/June in the Norht
Seedrate: 30 – 35kg/ha or two or three seeds/hole.
Spacing: (i) 40-60cm x 20cm for the creeping type. (ii) 60cm x 15cm for the bunch type.
Planting: Groundnut is planted by seeds. It can be planted between March and April in the South and May and June in the north. Two to three seeds are planted per hole which should be 4cm deep. Spacing is 40-60 x 20cm.
i.Regular weeding should be done with hoe before flowering. This should be stopped immediately when the flowers appear. It enables the pods to get into the soil properly.
ii.The stem of groundnut may be pressed down during flowering for better fruiting
iii.Control pests and disease attack
iv.Groundnut does not require fertilizers except on poor soil.
Maturity Period: It matures between four to six months.
Harvesting: Harvesting is done when the lower leaves turn brown and begins to fall. Harvesting is done by using native hoes or by pulling the plants up by hand. The nuts are then picked from the plant root and stem. Harvest 120-150 days after planting, depending on the variety. Harvesting can be done manually or mechanically by uprooting the plant and allowing them to dry for easy removal of pods.
Processing and storage: Harvested nuts are dried properly. The seeds are removed from the shells by pounding them slightly in mortars or by beating them with sticks. Small shelling or decorticating machine can also be used to remove the seeds from the pod.
Storage: Dried groundnuts can be stored in clean rhumbus or silos. The unshelled pods are stored in sacks while the shelled nuts are stored in bags. The shelled nuts are treated with insecticides before storage.
Pest of Groundnut
1.Rodents: These include rats which dig up and eat sown seeds
Control: Fencing and trapping should be done
2.Groundnut Beetle: This attacks the nuts during storage.
Control: Fumigation with phostoxin tablets should be done. Other pests include aphids. Caterpillar and grasshopper, bruchid or weevil or floor beetle.
Disease of Groundnut:
i.Groundnut rosette disease: It is cuased by virus which is transmitted by aphid and other piercing and sucking insects.
Symptoms: Symptoms include green leaves which become yellow with mosaic form of mottling. The plant becomes stunted and finally withers and dies.
Control: (i) Plant healthy seeds (ii) uproot and burn infected plants (iii) spray to kill the vector (aphids) with insecticide
ii.Tikka Disease: It is caused by fungus (Cercospora personata), which can be spread by air or wind.
Symptoms: Symptoms include yellowing of leaves with dark brown spots on the under surface. Falling of the leaves soon will set in.
Control: (i) Early planting (ii) Practise crop rotation (ii) Use resistant varieties (iv) maintain farm sanitation
iii.Aspergillosis: It is caused by a fungus (Aspertilles Havus) which make the seed become mouldy. Spores are transmitted through the soil. Pods become toxic because of the presence of aflatoxins which are poisonous. The hypocotlyl of the geminating seeds will die.
i.Plant mould-free seeds. (ii) treat seeds with fungicides
A rock is defined as any mineral material of the earth. The earth’s crust consists of rocks. A rock may be a combination of different elements such as silica which contains silicon and oxygen.
Types of rocks
All rocks are classified into three major types:
Igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, based on their origin, mode of formation and appearance.
All these rock differ from one another in texture, structure, colour, permeability, mode of occurrence and the degree of resistance to denudation
i.Igneous rocks are glassy in appearance.
ii.Igneous rocks are crystalline in structure, that is, they contain crystals.
iii.They do not occur in layers that is, they are non-stratified rocks.
iv.They do not contain fossils.
v.They are usually very hard and impervious.
vi.They are resistant to erosion and other elements of climate
vii.They are light and dark in colour
Mode of Formation
Igneous rocks are formed by the cooling and solidification of molten rocks called magma ejected from beneath the earth’s crust. The Magma, which results from high temperature and pressure beneath the earth, forces itself towards the earth’s surface through cracks. As the magma moves towards the surface, it comes in contact with lower temperature; hence, it cools and solidifies to form igneous rocks,
Types of Igneous Rocks
There are two types of igneous rocks which are:
(a) Plutonic (or instrusive) igneous rocks: These are rocks formed when the molten magma cools and solidifies slowly before it gets to the surface of the earth to form large crystals. As a result of prolonged erosion, the plutonic igneous rocks will later be exposed to the surface. Examples of plutonic igneous rocks are granite, gabbro and diorite.
(b) Volcanic (extrusive) igneous rocks:
These rocks are formed when the molten magma cools and solidifies rapidly on getting to the surface of the earth to form small crystals. An example of volcanic igneous rock is basalt.
Characteristics of Sedimentary Rocks
i.They occur in layers or strata or sheets.
ii.The rocks are coarse in texture
iii.They do not exist in crystals, i.e, they are non-crystalline in structure.
iv.They contain fossils of plants and animals.
v.They are not resistant to erosion.
vi.They are soft.
vii.They react with weak acid e.g. dilute HCL
Mode of Formation
Sedimentary rocks are formed from sediments deposited either by water, by wind or by ice. These sediments are accumulated in layers or strata, one on top of the other and after a long period of time, they become hardened by compression to form sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary rocks are stratified rocks and the plane between two strata is called bedding plane.
Types of Sedimentary Rocks
There are three types of sedimentary rocks, based on their process of formation. These are:
(a) Mechanically-formed Sedimentary Rocks
These are formed from sediments of other rocks that have accumulated and cemented together over a long period of time. Examples include: sandstone, breccias, shale, clay and conglomerate.
(b) Organically-formed Sedimentary Rocks
These are rocks formed from the remains of living organisms. When sedimentary rocks are formed from the remains of animals like corals or fish shells, such rocks are called calcareous rocks, e.g, limestone and chalk. But when sedimentary rocks are formed from the remains of vegetable matter such as swamps and forest, they are called carbonaceous rocks. Examples include, coal, peat, lignite, petroleum, etc.
(c) Chemically-formed Sedimentary Rocks
These rocks are precipitated chemically from rock solutions. Examples include potash, sodium chloride (common salt), nitrate, gypsum and dolomite.
Characteristics of Metamorphic Rocks
i.Some may occur in layers or strata.
ii.The rocks may be hard or soft.
iii.They are non-crystalline in structure.
iv.They exist in different colours and texture.
v.They may contain fossils.
Mode of Formation
Metamorphic rocks are changed rocks. The rocks are formed from pre-existing igneous or sedimentary rocks which have been changed as a result of great heat and pressure. The original character and appearance may be greatly altered or changed by such forces. Examples of metamorphic rocks include slate, marble, quartzite, gnesis, schist and graphite. For example, slate is formed from clay; marble is formed from limestone; quartzite is formed from sandstone; gneiss is formed from granite; schist is formed from shale and graphite is formed from coal.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF ROCKS IN AGRICULTURE
1.Formation of soil: Soil is formed from the disintegration of rocks.
2.Sources of plant nutrients: Plant nutrients like iron, calcium, potassium, etc are derived from rocks.
3.Construction purpose: Some rocks like granite and sand stones are quarried and used for road and farm building construction
4.Erosion control: Rocks are used to make a pile up across sloppy lands to prevent soil erosion.
5.Obstacles to farm implements: Rocks are generally a source of hindrance to the free operations of farm implements.
6.Domestic uses: Some rocks like granites are used for domestic purposes. An example is grinding stone.
7.Sources of metals: Rocks are sources of metals which are derived from mines, e.g. gold silver, copper, aluminum etc
8.As Ornamentals: Some beautiful rocks such as marble can be polished as ornamentals for decorating floors, walls of buildings, churches, etc.
9.Sources of fuel: Sedimentary rocks like petroleum and coal are sources of fuel for domestic, commercial and industrial purposes.
10.Sources of Food: Rock-salt, such as sodium chloride (table salt) from sedimentary rocks, provides minerals used in cooking our food.
11.Sources of Minerals: Some rocks are sources of minerals such as gold, diamond, limestone, petroleum, etc. which can generate income to the nation.
12.Raw Materials for industries: Some sedimentary rocks are used as raw materials for industries. For example limestone is used for making cement. Dolomite and marble are used to manufacture glasses and house paints.
PROCESES OF SOIL FORMATION
The process of soil-formation is called weathering. Weathering is defined as the disintegration or breakdown of rocks into tiny pieces to form soil. In other words, weathering can also be defined as the breaking down of rock masses (rock minerals) into simpler forms through the agents of physical, chemical and biological processes.
(1) Physical process (2) Chemical process (3) Biological process
(1) Physical Process: Agents of physical weathering are temperature, ice, wind, water and pressure.
i.Temperature: The alternating heating and cooling of the rocks produce pressure within the rocks and cause them to break down into pieces.
ii.Wind: As a result of the grinding of rock surfaces by solid materials carried by wind water and moving ice (glacier), rocks break down to form soil.
iii.Ice: The conversion of water inside cracks in rocks into ice results in increase in volume. This increase in volumes results in more pressure being exerted on the rock walls which eventually break into smaller pieces.
iv.Water: Running water carries some fragments of rocks along its course and these rub against the surface of rocks in the river bed, thus breaking off small pieces of rocks.
- Chemical Process: Agents of Chemical weathering include solution, carbonation, hydration, hydrolysis and oxidation.
i.Solution: This occurs when water dissolves and soluble minerals present in the rock are carried from place while water flows.
ii.Carbonation: Atmospheric carbon dioxide mixes with rain water to form weak carbonic acid. This acid dissolves rocks, resulting in their breakdown.
iii.Hydration: This is the attachment of water with rock minerals. This results in chemical alteration of the minerals, e.g the conversion of iron II rocks to hydrated rocks. Hematite rock is also changed to liminite.
iv.Hydrolysis: This is the reaction of water with rock minerals to produce a rock, entirely different from the original one. For example olivine rock is changed to serpentine.
v.Oxidation: This is the reaction of rocks with oxygen from the atmosphere. This reaction eventually weakens and breaks down the rock to form soil.
- Biological Process: This involves the activities of plants and animals in the breaking down of rocks to form soil.
i.It is caused by the action of animals like earthworms, termites and other soil organisms.
ii.Movements of these organisms cause small fragments of rocks to disintegrate.
iii.Earthworms and termites burrow into the rocks and break off fragments of rocks.
iv.The roots of growing plants penetrate rocks through crevices, exerting pressures which split some rocks.
v.The activities of man during farm operations such as ploughing and harrowing also break down rocks into tiny pieces.
FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
Soil formation is greatly controlled by five major factors which are (i) climate. (ii) parent materials (iii) topography (iv) biotic (living organisms) and (v) time.
Elements of climate such as rainfall, temperature, wind and pressure are all very important in soil formation.
(i) Temperature: The alternating heating and cooling of rocks result in the continual expansion and contraction which eventually result in cracks in the rocks and its consequent breakdown into small pieces to form the soil.
Temperature affects the rate of chemical weathering of rocks.
(ii) Rainfall: The action of running water from rainfall causes the gradual wearing away of rocks during erosion to form soil. Rainfall provides water for hydrolysis. Also, rain drops may break down some parent rocks to form soil.
Rainfall enhances vegetative growth of plants whose roots cause further breakdown of rocks, while the rain water transports rock particles after disintegration.
(iii) Wind: High-wind velocity in deserts carry with it other tiny rocks which collide with one another or other rocks, resulting in the breaking of rocks into tiny pieces to form soil. Wind also removes weathered materials, thereby, exposing parent materials to further breakdown.
(iv) Pressure: High pressure on a hanging rock may cause such rock to fall down and break into tiny pieces, resulting in the formation of soil.
- Parent material: Parent materials constitute the major materials from which soil is formed. They are igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Parent materials determine the chemical composition of the soil that is formed. It is also contains different minerals which account for differences in the fertility of the soil formed from each of the different types. Parent materials determine the physical characteristics of the soil. Hardness of parent material affects the rate of soil formation.
The shape of the ground in relation to the underlying rock of the earth’s surface is known as topography. Topography affects the rate of run-off and erosion. Steep slopes encourage erosion and retard soil-formation. Soil-formation is faster in the valley than on slopes. Steepness of the slope affects the rate of abrasion of rocks; hence, soil is formed.
The activities of living organisms help to speed up the process of soil formation.
i.Termite, earthworm, rodent mix the mineral and organic matter together, and these results in the formation of soil.
ii.They also allow water and air into the soil which eventually react with rocks to cause their break down into soil.
iii.The activities of man during tillage and other farm operation indirectly help to break rocks into tiny pieces to form soil.
iv.The activities of micro-organisms which promote decomposition of organic materials aid soil-formation.
v.The roots of plants penetrate rocks and break them into tiny pieces to form soil.
vi.They influence the organic matter content of the soil.
vii.Organisms produce carbon dioxide which forms carbonic acid with water and enhances the weathering rocks.
viii.Microbes also improve soil aeration and water percolation. This enhance chemical and physical weathering.
ix.Microbes help in the decomposition of organic matter in the soil.
x.The decay of fallen leaves of trees with the aid of bacteria results in the formation of humus, and this is rich in plants food.
- Time: Time also plays an important role in soil-formation. It takes a long time for mature soil to be formed.
i.It takes a long time for small pieces of rock to disintegrate into grains of soil.
ii.It also takes a long time for plants to decay and become part of the soil.
iii.It also takes time for rainfall to leach chlorides, sulphates and carbonates from the soil.
iv.It takes a short time in the formation of immature soil.
v.Time also determines whether or not the soil is well-developed.
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