The journey of securing admission into a higher institution of learning can be tedious but the moment one gains admission into a University, College of Education or Polytechnic in Nigeria, he/she can be said to have passed a big hurdle. However, with each phase in life, comes new challenges and these challenges have to be surmounted for one to be considered successful in that phase.
Once you have gained admission into a higher institution, family, friends and well-wishers will come around to congratulate you and in some cases, they may also come to merry with you during your matriculation. However, as soon as that day is over, you are expected to swing into action and focus on your main objective of being in a higher institution. At this point, you begin to attend classes, write assignments and prepare for your exam. Students who are focused, already begin to learn how to calculate their GPA or CGPA depending on where they find themselves.
Knowing how to calculate your GPA or CGPA is as important as anything you are doing in other to ensure that you come out with good grades. Being able to calculate your result helps you determine your position each semester and how close you are to achieving your set objective for being in an academic institution of learning. So, in this article, we are going to give a breakdown of how you can calculate your CGPA whether you are in a University, Polytechnic or College of education.
How to Calculate Your GPA or CGPA for Polytechnics
Do you want to learn how to calculate your GPA/CGPA at a Nigerian polytechnic? Here’s a comprehensive step-by-step instruction on how to do it. The cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) is the average of all the courses you’ve taken at the university or polytechnic. It may also be expressed as the total grade points divided by the total number of units in the registered courses.
The technique for calculating GPA at Nigerian polytechnics is substantially identical to that used in Nigerian universities. However, in the computation of GPA and the granting of Ordinary National Diploma (OND) and Higher National Diploma (HND), Nigerian polytechnics utilize the following grading system:
NOTE: Please rotate your screen to see the other end of the tables used for illustration.
Polytechnics Grading System Table:
Score (%) | Grade | Grade Point | Final CGPA | Class Of Degrees |
100-80 | A | 4.00 | 3.50 – 4.00 | Distinction |
79-70 | AB | 3.50 | 3.00 – 3.49 | Upper Credit |
60-69 | B | 3.00 | 2.50 – 2.99 | Lower Credit |
59-50 | BC | 2.50 | 2.00 – 2.49 | Pass |
49-40 | C | 2.00 | 0.00 – 1.99 | Fail |
Calculation of the OND1 GPA in the first semester:
Assume you teach the following courses and receive scores that correspond to the following grades, resulting in the distribution shown in the table below. Then your GPA will be as follows:
Course Code | Credit Unit | Grade | Grade Points | Quality Points (CU X GP) | Total Points |
Gsp 101 | 2 | C | 2.00 | 2 x 2.00 | 4.00 |
Gsr 105 | 2 | C | 2.00 | 2 x 2.00 | 4.00 |
Gsr 111 | 2 | A | 4.00 | 2 x 4.00 | 8.00 |
Gsr 201 | 2 | AB | 3.50 | 2 x 3.50 | 7.00 |
Coc 101 | 2 | BC | 2.50 | 2 x 2.50 | 5.00 |
Stat 131 | 2 | B | 3.00 | 2 x 3.00 | 6.00 |
Mth 221 | 3 | C | 2.00 | 3 x 2.00 | 6.00 |
Total Credit Units | 15 | 44 |
OND1: GPA = Total points/Total Credit Units = 44.00/15 = 2.9 for the first semester.
As a result, your ND1 GPA for the first semester is 2.9.
Calculation of the OND1 GPA in the second semester:
Assume you teach the following courses and receive scores that correspond to the following grades, resulting in the distribution shown in the table below. Then your GPA will be as follows:
Course Code | Credit Unit | Grade | Grade Points | Quality Points (CU X GP) | Total Points |
Chm 112 | 2 | A | 4.00 | 2 x 4.00 | 8.00 |
Gsp 208 | 2 | E | 0.00 | 2 x 0.00 | 0.00 |
Gsr 104 | 2 | c | 2.00 | 2 x 2.00 | 4.00 |
Gsr 203 | 2 | C | 2.00 | 2 x 2.00 | 4.00 |
Bip 159 | 3 | B | 3.00 | 3 x 3.00 | 9.00 |
Phy 196 | 2 | BC | 2.50 | 2 x 2.50 | 5.00 |
Glg 142 | 3 | C | 2.00 | 3 x 2.00 | 6.00 |
Total Credit Units | 16 | 36 |
GPA for the second semester = Total points/Total Credit Units = 36.0/16 = 2.21875= 2.25
As a result, your ND1 GPA for the second semester is 2.25.
To determine your ND1 (first year) cumulative grade point average (CGPA), sum your ND1 first and second semester GPAs and divide the result by two, i.e. the number of semesters. Finding the average is all this entails.
Here’s how it goes:
(First Semester ND1 GPA + Second Semester ND1 GPA) / 2 = (2.9 + 2.25) / 2. Your OND1 CGPA = (First Semester ND1 GPA + Second Semester ND1 GPA) / 2 = (2.9 + 2.25) / 2.5.15 / 2 = 2.575 = 2.58 CGPA
For each semester’s outcome, the process is repeated.
That’s all there is to it when it comes to calculating GPA (Grade Point Average)/CGPA (Cumulative Grade Point Average) at Nigerian polytechnics.
How to Calculate GPA or CGPA for Universities
So here is the range/value of each letter grade at Nigerian universities, prior to the benchmark.
The Old Grading System Table
Percentage Score | Letter Grade | Points | Rating/Remark |
70 – 100 | A | 5 | Excellent |
60 – 69 | B | 4 | Very Good |
50 – 59 | C | 3 | Good |
45 – 49 | D | 2 | Fair |
*40 – 44 | E | 1 | Pass |
0 – 30 | F | 0 | Fail |
The pass score/mark has been extended in accordance with the new NUC standard “E.” The letter “E” is considered to be “Fail”.
Here’s the new system: a student’s work at the university is currently rated in the letters below, with each letter carrying an equal number of points, as follows:
Table of the New Scoring System
Percentage Scores | Letter Grades | Points | Rating/Remark |
70 – 100 | A | 5 | Excellent |
60 – 69 | B | 4 | Very Good |
50 – 59 | C | 3 | Good |
*45 – 49 | D | 2 | Pass |
0 – 44 | F | 0 | Fail |
The minimum acceptable pass score is 45 percent. As a result, a ‘D’ will be the minimal passing mark for all courses, including electives and General Studies. All examples below, however, will be based on the most recent update (benchmark).
What Is Grade Point Average (GPA)?
The above grading method is used to calculate a student’s grade point average at the conclusion of each semester. Assume that in your first semester, you offer the following courses:
Course code | Title of Course | Credit Unit |
GSP 100 | The Use of English I | 2 |
GSP 111 | Use of Library | 2 |
GSP 105 | Natural Science I | 2 |
GSP 201 | Social Sciences I | 2 |
COS 101 | Introduction to Computer Science | 2 |
STA 131 | Inference I | 2 |
MTH 221 | Real Analysis I | 3 |
Total Credit Units | 15 |
Let’s assume your grades C, A, D, A, D, B, and C in each of the courses, equal to 3, 5, 2, 5, 2, 4, and accordingly. Using the new grading scale, each course’s total point will be calculated as follows:
Total Point of a Course = credit unit of the course multiplied by the grade point matching to the letter grade of the course in question, i.e. Total Point of a Course = credit unit of the course multiplied by the grade point relating to the letter grade of the course in question Grade point for the course, then repeat for all subsequent courses in the same manner:
Table for Calculating GPA in the First Semester
Course Code | Credit Unit | Letter Grade | Points Grade | Credit x Points | Total Points |
GSP 100 | 2 | C | 3 | 2 x 3 | 6 |
GSP 111 | 2 | A | 5 | 2 x 5 | 10 |
GSP 105 | 2 | D | 2 | 2 x 2 | 4 |
GSP 201 | 2 | A | 5 | 2 x 5 | 10 |
COS 101 | 2 | D | 2 | 2 x 2 | 4 |
STA 131 | 2 | B | 4 | 2 x 4 | 8 |
MTH 221 | 3 | C | 3 | 3 x 3 | 9 |
Total Points | 51 |
The entire point, 51, is then divided by the total number of credit units (15) to produce the grade point average. Noting that there is no space for approximation in the computation of GPA, the following formula is used: First Semester GPA = Total points/Total Credit Units = 51/15 = 3.4.
Calculation of the GPA for the Second Semester
Assume that in the second semester, the student takes the following courses:
Course code | Title of Course | Credit Unit |
CHH 112 | Basic Principles of Physical Chemistry | 2 |
GSP 208 | Humanities II | 2 |
GSP 106 | Natural Science II | 2 |
GSP 202 | Social Sciences II | 2 |
BIO 152 | General Biology II | 3 |
PHY 196 | Practical Physical III | 2 |
GLG 142 | Earth’s History | 3 |
Total Credit Units | 16 |
And the student receives the following grades in the courses: A, A, C, F, D, D, and B. The second semester GPA of the student will then be displayed in the table below.
Course Code | Credit Unit | Letter Grade | Points Grade | Credit x Points | Total Points |
CHH 112 | 2 | A | 5 | 2 x 5 | 10 |
GSP 208 | 2 | A | 5 | 2 x 5 | 10 |
GSP 106 | 2 | C | 3 | 2 x 3 | 6 |
GSP 202 | 2 | F | 0 | 2 x 0 | 0 |
BIO 152 | 3 | D | 2 | 3 x 2 | 6 |
PHY 196 | 2 | D | 2 | 2 x 2 | 4 |
GLG 142 | 3 | B | 4 | 3 x 4 | 12 |
Total Points | 48 |
GPA for the second semester = The Total points/Total Credit Courses = 48/16 = 3.0 = 3.0
The cumulative grade point average (CGPA) is calculated by dividing the sum of the first and second semester GPAs by two (2), or the total number of semesters in a given year of study. As a result, the first-year GPA of a student is determined as follows:
First Year: CGPA = First Semester GPA + Second Semester GPA; Second Year: CGPA = First Semester GPA + Second Semester GPA; Third 6.4 / 2 = 3.2 GPA / 2 = (3.4 + 3.0)/2 = (3.4 + 3.0)/2 = (3.4 + 3.0)/2 = (3.4 + 3.0)/2 = (3.4 + 3.0)/2
CGPA in the first year: 3.2 (2nd Class Honours Lower (2/2)).
A student who is enrolled in a four-year program will have his or her last year result computed as follows:
FCGPA = Total of all CGPAs multiplied by the number of years in the program. If this was the case, the student earned the corresponding CGPA during her studies:
The first year’s CGPA is 3.2, the second year is 2.95, the third year is 4.40, and the fourth yearsis 3.84.
FCGPA = (4 Years) First Year CGPA + second Year CGPA + 3rd Year CGPA + 4th Year CGPA) as a result
FCGPA = 14.39 / 4 = 3.5975 = 3.59 (2nd Class Honours Upper (2/1) FCGPA = (3.2 + 2.95 + 4.40 + 3.84) FCGPA = (3.2 + 2.95 + 4.40 + 3.84) FCGPA = (3.2 + 2.95 + 4.40 + 3.84) FCGPA = (3.2 + 2.95 + 4.40 + 3.84) FCGPA
Remember that we don’t use an approximation when calculating GPA.
How to Calculate GPA or CGPA for Colleges of Education
In Nigerian universities, there is a lot of diversity in the grading system, which is mirrored in the College of Education. The majority of institutions of education employ a combination of letter and number grades. The letter grades range from A to F, whereas the figure grades range from 0 to 7, with 0-4 figure ratings being used by a handful of universities.
The College has established a grading system that uses both letters (A-F) and numbers in accordance with the National Commission of Colleges of Education (NCCE) (0-5). This is because it is more in line with the Nigerian degree categorization system. As a result, the NCE’s grading system is comparable to that used at universities.
Grade point average (GPA): This is calculated by multiplying the number of credit units awarded to each course by the number of points earned in that course, then summing and dividing it by the total number of credit units you must have taken for the semester.
Cumulative Grade Point Average: CGPA is the most recent average of a student’s Grade Points earned over a course of study. It is a measure of a student’s overall performance at any time during his or her instruction. The CGPA is calculated by multiplying Total Grade Points by their corresponding Credit Units per semester and dividing by Total Credit Units for all of the student’s courses.
CREDIT UNITS I | PERCENTAGE SCORE II | LETTER GRADE III | GRADE POINT AVERAGE (GP) IV | GRADE POINT AVERAGE (GP) | CUMMULATIVE GRADE POINT AVERAGE (GP) V | LEVEL OF PASS IN SUBJECTS VI |
Vary According to Contact Assigned To Per course Per week Per semester And According Work Load Registered By Student. | 70-100 | A | 5 | DERIVED BY MULTIPLYING I AND IV AND DIVIDING BY TOTAL CREDIT UNITS | 4.50-5.00 | DISTINCTION |
60-69 | B | 4 | 3.50-4.49
2.40-3.3.49 | CREDIT MERIT | ||
50-59 | C | 3 | 2.50-2.39 | PASS | ||
45-49 | D | 2 |
1.00-1.49 |
LOW PASS | ||
40-44 | E | 1 |
0.99 |
FAIL | ||
0-39 | F | 0 |
TABLE: APPROVED SCORING AND GRADING SYSTEM
In summary, this article is meant to enlighten you on how to calculate your result as well as help you graduate with a good grade, if that is your objective.
This is all you need to know about grading systems in higher institutions. Some schools make use of CGPA grading system while most make use of the GPA grading system. I have made both calculations well explanatory with tables for ease of understanding for you.
Please feel free to reach us via the comment section if you are having issues with calculating your GPA and we will be happy to assist.