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Social Studies Lesson Note for JSS3 (First Term) 2023

Social Studies lesson note for JSS3 First Term is now available for free. The State and Federal Ministry of Education has recommended unified lesson notes for all secondary schools in Nigeria, in other words, all private secondary schools in Nigeria must operate with the same lesson notes based on the scheme of work for Social Studies.

Social Studies lesson note for JSS3  first Term has been provided in detail here on

Social Studies Lesson Note for JSS3 (First Term) [year] 1

For prospective school owners, teachers, and assistant teachers, Social Studies lesson note is defined as a guideline that defines the contents and structure of Social Studies as a subject offered at SS level. The lesson note for Social Studies for SS stage maps out in clear terms, how the topics and subtopics for a particular subject, group works and practical, discussions and assessment strategies, tests, and homework ought to be structured in order to fit in perfectly, the approved academic activities for the session.

To further emphasize the importance of this document, the curriculum for Social Studies spells out the complete guide on all academic subjects in theory and practical. It is used to ensure that the learning purposes, aims, and objectives of the subject meant for that class are successfully achieved.

Social Studies Lesson note for JSS3 carries the same aims and objectives but might be portrayed differently based on how it is written or based on how you structure your lesson note. Check how to write lesson notes as this would help make yours unique.

The JSS3 Social Studies lesson note provided here is in line with the current scheme of work hence, would go a long way in not just helping the teachers in carefully breaking down the subject, topics, and subtopics but also, devising more practical ways of achieving the aim and objective of the subject.

The sudden increase in the search for JSS3 Social Studies lesson note for First Term is expected because every term, tutors are in need of a robust lesson note that carries all topics in the curriculum as this would go a long way in preparing students for the West African Secondary Examination.

This post is quite a lengthy one as it provides in full detail, the government-approved lesson note for all topics and sub-topics in Social Studies as a subject offered in JSS3.

Please note that Social Studies lesson note for JSS3 provided here for First Term is approved by the Ministry of Education based on the scheme of work.

I made it free for tutors, parents, guardians, and students who want to read ahead of what is being taught in class.

JSS3 Social Studies Lesson Note (First Term) 2023













Fundamentals of Social Studies


At the end of the topic, students should be able to:

  • Define the contents of Social Studies
  • List the types of contents of Social Studies with topics and types of content.


Definition and Explanation of Contents of Social Studies

Definition of Content & Contents

Content is the information or ideas contained in something written, said, created, or represented.

Contents are the topics or ideas that are contained in something like a book or report. In the case of textbooks for students, the Contents of a textbook are the ideas and information a student is expected to learn and understand in a particular class or level.

Definition of Contents of Social Studies

Contents of Social Studies, therefore, is all the information, ideas, and topics the teacher is expected to teach the students in Social Studies. They are the topics that are and learn Social Studies as a subject. They are the topics that are included in the Social Studies curriculum.

The content of any subject should be related to the aims, goals, and objectives of the said subject. Therefore, the Contents of Social Studies are created in a manner in which the aims and objectives of the study of Social Studies are achieved.


Types of Content In Social Studies

The topics included in Social Studies support the societal norms and values and are categorized under facts, concepts, generalization, skills, values, and attitude relevant to the student’s age and level to enhance the growth and development of the society.

There are 6 types of Social-Studies Content which include:

  1. Facts:A fact is something that is known or proved to be true. It may also be something that is known to have happened. Therefore, there are some topics in Social Studies that are factual.
  2. Concepts:These are ideas, information, and principles that are necessary to know, learn and understand.
  3. Generalization:This is a statement that is true in most situations or for most people, but may not be completely true in all cases.
  4. Attitudes:This refers to how you think or feel about something. It is the behaviour of people towards something.
  5. Skills:This is the ability to do an activity or job well because you have practised it consistently over time. They are activities that are learnt over time which brings about perfection.
  6. Values: These are ideas and things that are cherished and important to an individual or group. It also involves one’s belief of what is morally right or wrong.

The table of contents of Social Studies below is identifying some topics in the curriculum, the class, and the type of content.

ContentsJSS IJSS 2JSS 3
FACTS Origin of Social StudiesGeneral objectives of Social Studies.Contents of Social Studies.
CONCEPTSDefinition of terms i.e. –Social Studies Family etc.Readiness in Marriage.Harmful Traditional Practices.
GENERALIZATION Common problems in Nigeria.Dangers of Drug Trafficking.Managing and resolving social conflict.
ATTITUDEConsequences of large/small family size.Positive Group Behaviours.Cultism.
SKILLSRoad safety as an agent of socialization.Characteristics of different types of groups behaviour.Roles of extended family members in a child’s development.
VALUESCulture.Family bond and living together as one family.Harmful Traditional Practices.


Components Of Social Studies


At the end of the topic, students should be able to:

  • Enumerate The Components Of Social Studies Contents.
  • Explain Each Component Of Social Studies Content.

Components Of Social Studies Contents

The components of Social Studies contents refer to the things that Social Studies is made up of. Components are areas of knowledge or the domains of the ideas to be acquired. There are 3 components which are also known as domains.

The 3 components of Social Studies contents are:

  1. Cognitive contents
  2. Affective contents
  3. Psychomotor contents

Explanation of Each Component of Social Studies Content

The 6 contents of the Social Studies curriculum fall within these 3 components.

  1. Cognitive contents:

This refers to the contents of Social Studies that have been discovered or learned. It is the ability for people to understand, think and learn, it also relies on the person’s ability to recall information.

There are different stages through which a person (or student) acquires knowledge, these are;

  1. Knowing the facts: first an individual has to learn of the fact by either hearing it from someone or reading it in a textbook or newspaper. Then, they make meaning of what was heard.
  2. Understanding the facts: by understanding the facts the individual shows that what was heard makes sense.
  3. Applying the facts: after a fact has been heard and understood, the individual is able to apply the fact in a similar situation.
  4. Putting the facts together to serve a common purpose: the facts that have been learnt and understood should be used whenever necessary.
  5. Examining the effects of the facts on your community or society: the learner has to examine the effects of the fact that has been understood and applied on the society, this shows that learning has taken place.

For effective learning to take place the following Methods and Materials can be used;

  1. Use of instructional materials
  2. Power point slides
  3. Excursions or visitations
  4. Use of human resources
  5. Organized class notes
  6. Debates
  7. Affective content:

This refers to the effect of any content on the attitude and behaviour of an individual. This component focuses on the emotion, attitude, and behaviour of the individual towards the content studied.

This component is very important in teaching and learning, because;

  • Attitude of the learner – when the learner is receptive to listening, then they listen.
  • Call to Action – the attitude will bring the learner to take action.
  • Willingness to Participate – having a positive attitude will make the learners want to participate in the learning process.
  • Value of Knowledge – the level of participation of the learner will determine the value attached to the knowledge gained.
  • Inclusion into way of life – when the learner has value for knowledge, the level of inclusion of the fact learnt in the learner’s life will be high.

The above can be categorized into:

  1. Receiving
  2. Recording
  3. Valuing
  4. Organizing
  5. Change one’s behavior
  6. Psychomotor Contents:

This refers to the body movements and coordination derived from what has been learned. It refers to the physical performance of the contents in a way that shows learning has taken place. It brings together the activities of cognitive and affective contents in a physical manner.

It also involves dramatizing (or performing) roles that are a part of Social Studies content such as Father, Mother, Political leaders, Educational leaders, etc.

Stages of Psychomotor Contents

In order for Psychomotor content to be effective, it must undergo the following stages;

  1. Elementary movement – This is the first stage, there must be action.
  2. Synchronized movement – Action must be organized and arranged in a logical manner.
  3. There must be body movement which shows or represents the information.
  4. Finally, there are results produced which are a combination of verbal and non-verbal movement.




1.The topics and ideas an individual is expected to know and understand in a subject area are known as _______.

  1. objectives
  2. contents
  3. components
  4. knowledge
  5. The contents of Social Studies include all the following EXCEPT


  1. culture
  2. family
  3. socialization
  4. multiplications
  5. All EXCEPT ________ is not a type of social studies content.


  1. facts
  2. acquisition
  3. values
  4. generalization
  5. When something which is true or had existed or happened, is learnt in Social Studies, this is an example of ________ content.


  1. facts
  2. values
  3. concept
  4. attitudes
  5. Any activity learnt which brings perfection or is done well is of


  1. facts
  2. values
  3. concept
  4. attitudes
  5. The content that reflects the behaviour or feelings of people is the knowledge called ………..
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  1. values
  2. concepts
  3. attitudes
  4. facts
  5. The content that deals with one’s belief and things cherished is called …………


  1. concepts
  2. skills
  3. attitudes
  4. values
  5. There are …….. components of Social Studies contents.


  1. 2
  2. 3
  3. 4
  4. 5
  5. How many stages are involved in the cognitive contents?


  1. 3
  2. 4
  3. 5
  4. 6
  5. The components of social studies contents that deals with the intelligence quotient are known as ………


  1. cognitive
  2. affective
  3. psychology
  4. psychometric


Family as a Basic Unit of Society


At the end of the topic, students should be able to:

  • Define family
  • Enumerate And Explain Other Types Of Family I.E. Step, Foster And Adopted
  • List The Members Of Extended Family.
  • State the roles of members of the family


Topic: Family as the basic unit of society


  • Meaning of family
  • Members of extended family
  • Roles of extended family members in child development


Meaning of family:

The family is the most important social unit of society.  This is a fact that everyone must learn.  The family is not only the basic societal unit.  It is also the basic sexual unit, the basic child-raising unit, the basic communication unit, and the basic all-around fun and friendship unit.

It is okay if one is not in a family at this time, but it is important to understand that the family is the basic unit of society.

A family is a unit of two dedicated to healing, even if they do not enunciate it or even understand it fully.  It means two who are happy to be together, who want to be together, and who deeply love one another, even though it can just be friends, for example, or a parent and a child.

Members of extended family

An extended family is a family that extends beyond the nuclear family, consisting of parents, aunts, uncles, and cousins, all living nearby or in the same household. An example is a married couple that lives with either the husband or the wife’s parents. The family changes from immediate household to extended household.

In some circumstances, the extended family comes to live either with or in place of a member of the immediate family. These families include, in one household, near relatives in addition to an immediate family. An example would be an elderly parent who moves in with his or her children due to old age. In modern Western cultures dominated by immediate family constructs, the term has come to be used generically to refer to grandparents, uncles, aunts, and cousins, whether they live together within the same household or not. However, it may also refer to a family unit in which several generations live together within a single household. In some cultures, the term is used synonymously with consanguineous family.

A definition of extended families is simply a family unit that extends past the nuclear family to include other relatives such as aunts, uncles, and grandparents. There is more to an extended family, however, than just a list of relatives, and understanding the structure of an extended family and why it can be a valuable type of family unit can help you better understand your own family structure.

An extended family can also be called a complex family, joint family, or multi-generational family. This type of family unit has multiple generations and additional relatives other than just the parents and their children living in the same household and taking on responsibilities for that household. In most cultures, the “core” of the family is the nuclear family, the parents and their children, while additional relatives are considered “extended.” The key characteristic of the extended family is that there are multiple adults in the family that are not parents of the children, though they may also have parent-like roles and share in the responsibilities for providing for the whole family, either by contributing financially or in other ways.

Who Is Part of an Extended Family

Every extended family can be different, and the relatives who are part of a multi-generational family in addition to the parents and their children (either biological, adopted, or foster) might include:

  • Grandparents
  • Great-grandparents
  • Aunts
  • Uncles
  • Cousins

In most modern extended families, only one married couple per generation lives in the home, although there are plenty of examples of multiple married couples and their children living together. Young married couples without children may also continue to live as part of an extended family until they have their own children and are better able to move out on their own.

No matter who is a member of the extended family, there is often only one head of the household. Depending on the size of the family and the roles each member plays, that leader may be the oldest, most senior family member, or the most prominent breadwinner who contributes a significant portion of the family’s finances. Another way to determine the head of the household is by whose home it was initially; a young couple living in a parent’s home will see the older generation as the heads of household, whereas a grandparent who moves into her son or daughter’s home will see her child as the head of the household.

Roles of extended family members in child development

An extended family can also be called a complex family, joint family, or multi-generational family. This type of family unit has multiple generations and additional relatives other than just the parents and their children living in the same household and taking on responsibilities for that household. In most cultures, the “core” of the family is the nuclear family, the parents and their children, while additional relatives are considered “extended.” The key characteristic of the extended family is that there are multiple adults in the family that are not parents of the children, though they may also have parent-like roles and share in the responsibilities for providing for the whole family, either by contributing financially or in other ways.

Who Is Part of an Extended Family

Every extended family can be different, and the relatives who are part of a multi-generational family in addition to the parents and their children (either biological, adopted, or foster) might include:

  • Grandparents
  • Great-grandparents
  • Aunts
  • Uncles
  • Cousins

In most modern extended families, only one married couple per generation lives in the home, although there are plenty of examples of multiple married couples and their children living together. Young married couples without children may also continue to live as part of an extended family until they have their own children and are better able to move out on their own.

No matter who is a member of the extended family, there is often only one head of the household. Depending on the size of the family and the roles each member plays, that leader may be the oldest, most senior family member, or the most prominent breadwinner who contributes a significant portion of the family’s finances. Another way to determine the head of the household is by whose home it was initially; a young couple living in a parent’s home will see the older generation as the heads of household, whereas a grandparent who moves into her son or daughter’s home will see her child as the head of the household.


Briefly define the following;

  • Family
  • Extended family
  • Aunt
  • Uncle
  • Cousin



Human Trafficking


At the end of the topic, students should be able to:

  • Define Human Trafficking.
  • List And Explain the Methods of Human Trafficking.


Definition of Human Trafficking

Human Trafficking is the buying and selling of humans for the purpose of forced labour, financial exploitation, or prostitution.

Human Trafficking is illegal and an act that is forbidden by law. It is the unlawful act of recruiting, transporting, transferring, harbouring, or receipt of people through force, fraud, or deception, with the aim of exploiting them for profit (or financial gain). Human Trafficking can happen within or across a nation and also across international borders.

Human Trafficking involves subjecting the victims (usually women and children) to wicked and inhumane treatment which includes; physical marks (which may be obtained through beating and torture), forced labour, prostitution, ritual killings, e.t.c.

Methods of Human Trafficking

In Human Trafficking, there are two different parties involved; the “Trafficker” and the “Victim”. The person who deals or trades in something illegal is known as a Trafficker. On the other hand, the person who has been hurt or killed is known as the Victim.

Traffickers use different methods to get their Victims, some of these Methods include:

  1. Enticing
  2. Deception
  3. Abduction
  4. Use of Position and Wealth

Enticing: To entice someone means to attarct someone to a particular place or activity by offering something pleasant or advantageous. Human Traffickers may try to seduce their prospective victims by giving them expensive gists or money. They do this in order to tempt and attract victims so they can draw them in.

Deception: This is when someone deliberately makes you feel something that is not true. Human Traffickers make promises to their prospective victims and their families that they know they will not honour or keep, in order to lure them in. Some examples of such promises are they will be sent to school or have arranged a better opportunity abroad.

Abduction: This is the action of forcibly taking someone away against their will. Sometimes Human Traffickers chose to capture their victims using threats or violence and forcefully transport their victims to a different location against their will.

Use of Position and Wealth: If the Human Trafficker is someone who is more influential or richer than their victim, they can use their position, wealth and authority to gain control. They are able to use their position and wealth to exploit and intimidate their victims and their victim’s family.



  • State three characteristics of Human trafficking
  • Briefly explain four causes of Human trafficking



Topic: Harmful Traditional Practices


  1. Meaning of Harmful Traditional Practices
  2. Examples of Harmful Traditional Practices 
  3. Consequences of Harmful Traditional Practices
  4. Prevention


Harmful traditional practices are forms of violence which have been committed primarily against women and girls in certain communities and societies for so long that they are considered, or presented by perpetrators, as part of accepted cultural practice. The most common are: Forced or early marriage, Female Genital Mutilation etc. 

Examples of Harmful Traditional Practices 

Throughout the world, there are many different types of harmful traditional practices that violate the human rights of women. Some practices are endemic to a particular area of the world, while others are more widespread. Below are a few of the most prevalent and harmful practices that constitute violence against women and a violation of their personal dignity and human rights.

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The most common are:

  1. Son Preference, Female Infanticide, and Sex-Selective Abortions

“Son preference” is a custom rooted in gender inequality that is prevalent in many countries and found across religions and classes. It is, however, most apparent in countries of South Asia, where poverty is prevalent, and where families might view the “continuity of the male line” as a matter of particular importance.

  1. Forced and Early Marriages

Girls being forced into marriage, sometimes at very young ages, is prevalent in many areas throughout the world. Forced or early marriages may be an expectation within the social or religious culture in which a girl or woman lives. In certain cultures within India, the Middle East, and Africa, the practice of forcing girls ages 11, 12, and 13 to marry and begin producing children is prevalent. Young girls command a higher bride-price (not to be confused with a dowry, which is paid by the wife’s parents to the family of the husband) for their parents due to the cultural value placed upon virginity. Regardless of the reason it is practiced, child marriage robs young girls of their childhood and forces them into dependent and subordinate positions within the husband’s family. A child bride is at increased risk of serious or fatal complications for both herself and her children arising from giving birth before having fully developed.

  1. Bride Kidnapping

Bride kidnapping is a form of forced marriage. It is a phenomenon in some cultures in which a young girl or woman is abducted by an individual or group wishing to force that girl into a marriage which she and her family would not otherwise consent to.

  1. “Honor” Crimes

An “honor crime” involves the murder, attempted murder, physical or mental abuse, exile, or forced marriage of another perpetrated for the purpose of preserving family or communal ‘honor.’ Though honor crimes are committed against both men and women, in some cultures women are disproportionately targeted. Honor (within the context of honour crime) is defined with respect to a culture or religion’s assigned sexual and familial roles in what are typically patriarchal societies. Within these cultures and/or religions, actual or accused adultery, premarital relationships (which may or may not include sexual contact), rape, and relationships with ‘inappropriate’ persons are considered violations of family honor. Violence against women for actual or alleged violations are claimed to be justified by perpetrators as being necessary to restore the family’s honor.

  1. Stoning or Flogging of Women

Stoning is a form of capital punishment in which the condemned is buried up to the neck and has rocks thrown at him or her by the executioners, leading to a slow and painful death. It most often occurs in Muslim contexts, though there is no reference to stoning in the Qur’an. A similar but non-lethal punishment of flogging is practiced in a number of Muslim cultures in Afghanistan, Indonesia, Iran, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Sudan.

  1. Forced Pregnancy

In places where conflict is prevalent, rape and forced impregnation is often employed as a strategy to suppress ethnic or religious communities, making women highly vulnerable.

  1. Polygamy

Polygamy is the practice of marrying more than one person. In nearly all instances, this takes the form of polygyny, in which a man may marry multiple wives but a woman may only marry one husband. Researchers have found a strong link between polygamy and violence against women.

  1. Wife Inheritance and Maltreatment of Widows

The term ‘wife inheritance’ refers to the expectation within certain cultures that a widow marry or enter into a sexual relationship with the brother or kinsman of her late husband. Central to the practice is the belief that the widow owes her in-laws a child or children in return for maintaining her property rights in any inheritance she may receive. The practice occurs worldwide, including in countries such as Kenya, Malawi, South Africa, Zimbabwe, India, and Siberia. Refusal by a widow to be ‘inherited’ typically leads to her being disinherited, ostracized, and expelled from her home. In some versions of the practice, the widow is forced or coerced to first have sexual intercourse (often without use of a condom) with a social outcast in order to cleanse her husband’s evil spirits. Widows are also frequently evicted from their homes, or the marital property seized by in-laws upon the death of a woman’s husband. Property and inheritance laws are frequently unfair to women, often leaving widows in situations of great dependency.

  1. Bride-Price and Dowry-Related Violence

Dowry-related violence encompasses any type of violence, whether physical, psychological, or economic in nature, which is perpetrated due to expectations arising from a dowry. A dowry may include gifts, money, goods, or property given by the bride’s family to the groom or groom’s family before, during, or anytime after the marriage. While dowry is practiced in many different of the world, dowry-related violence is most prevalent in South Asia, in the nations of India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. A bride-price is the counter-part of a dowry. In some cultures, sometimes the same cultures which practice dowry, money or gifts may be given by a groom to the family of the bride for the marriage of their daughter. A higher bride-price may be demanded based upon factors such as virginity, youth, and fertility. The practice of payment of a bride-price remains prevalent in many Asian countries, including Thailand, China, Africa, and parts of Central Asia such as Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Russia.

  1. Acid Attacks and Stove Burning

An acid attack is an act in which an attacker throws or sprays acid in the face or body of the victim, leading to permanent disfigurement or scarring. The practice of stove burning originally involved a woman being burned alive through the deliberate tampering with a stove, causing an explosion. Another formulation occurs when the husband or other family member douses a woman in the stove’s kerosene oil before setting her on fire.

  1. Witch Burning/Beheading

Witch-hunting and burning is a practice that has been going on in many parts of the world for centuries. People in such communities often attribute unexplained illnesses and deaths to sorcery, and evidence shows that women are disproportionately suspected and accused of the practice.

  1. Virginity Tests

To varying degrees, the virginity of a bride is still considered a virtue in communities throughout the world. Virginity testing, the examination of the genitals as a way to determine sexual chastity, remains popular in communities that place a high premium on virginity for social, economic, and religious reasons.

  1. Breast Ironing

Breast ironing is a practice, often performed by a mother, in which the breasts of pubescent girls are pounded using tools such as spatulas, grinding stones, hot stones, and hammers, as a means of delaying their development and protecting girls from rape and other types of unwanted male attention.

  1. Incision

An Incision is an opening that is made in something with a sharptool, especially in someone’s body during an operation. An incision is a cut made into the tissues of the body to expose the underlying tissue, bone or organ so that a surgical procedure can be performed. An incision is typically made with a sharp instrument, such as a scalpel, that is extremely sharp and leaves the skin and tissues with clean edges that are able to heal well.

Here we’ll be considering majorly Female Genital Mutilation (FGM).

Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is the partial or total removal of the female external genitalia. External genitals include the clitoris, labia, mons pubis (the fatty tissue over the pubic bone), and the urethral and vaginal openings.

The practice of FGM is often called “female circumcision” (FC), implying that it is similar to male circumcision. However, the degree of cutting is much more extensive, often impairing a woman’s sexual and reproductive functions. The traditional custom of ritual cutting and alteration of the genitalia of female infants, girls, and adolescents, referred to as female genital mutilation (FGM), persists primarily in Africa and among certain communities in the Middle East and Asia.
Traditionally,  a local village practitioner,  or midwife is engaged for a fee to perform the procedure, which is done without anesthesia using a variety of instruments, such as knives, razor blades, broken glass, or scissors not considering the health indications of using these instruments.

Types Of Female Genital Mutilation

  • Circumcision or “Sunna”: This involves the removal of the prepuce and the tip of the clitoris. This is the only operation which, medically, can be likened to male circumcision.
  • Excision or clitoridectomy: This involves the removal of the clitoris, and often also of the labia minora. It is the most common operation and is practised throughout Africa, Asia, the Middle East and the Arabian Peninsula.
  • Infibulation or Pharaonic circumcision: This is the most severe operation, involving excision plus the removal of the labia majora and the sealing of the two sides, through stitching or natural fusion of scar tissue. What is left is a very smooth surface, and a small opening to permit urination and the passing of menstrual blood. This artificial opening is sometimes not larger that the head of a match.
  • Introcision: In this form of mutilation, When a girl reaches puberty, the whole tribe – both sexes – assembles. The operator, an elderly man, enlarges the vaginal orifice by tearing it downward with three fingers bound with opposum string. In other districts, the perineum is split with a stone knife. This is usually followed by compulsory sexual intercourse with a number of young men. As soon as a girl reaches maturity, she is intoxicated and subjected to mutilation in front of her community. The operation is performed by an elderly woman, using a bamboo knife. She cuts around the hymen from the vaginal entrance and severs the hymen from the labia, at the same time exposing the clitoris. Medicinal herbs are applied followed by the insertion into the vagina of a slightly moistened penis-shaped object made of clay.
  • Unclassified types of FGM: This includes pricking, piercing or incision of clitoris and/or labia; stretching of clitoris and/or labia; cauterisation by burning of clitoris and surrounding tissues; scraping (angurya cuts) of the vaginal orifice or cutting (gishiri cuts) of the vagina; introduction of corrosive substances into the vagina to cause bleeding or herbs into the vagina with the aim of tightening or narrowing the vagina; any other procedures which fall under the definition of FGM given above.
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Reasons For Female Genital Mutilation

This procedure has a lot to do with traditions and cultural beliefs. It is believed that cutting or removal of the tissues around thevagina would prevent women from having pleasurable sexual feelings. These reasons range from cultural, religious to social.

  • This procedure is used for social and cultural control of women’s sexuality and feelings of sexual arousal.
  • FGM is often considered a necessary part of raising a girl properly, and a way to prepare her for adulthood and marriage
  • In its most extreme form, INFIBULATION, where the girl’s vagina is sewn shut, the procedure ensures virginity.
  • FGM is often motivated by beliefs about what is considered proper sexual behaviour, linking procedures to premarital virginity and marital fidelity. FGM is in many communities believed to reduce a woman’s libido and therefore believed to help her resist “illicit” sexual acts. When a vaginal opening is covered or narrowed, the fear of the pain of opening it, and the fear that this will be found out, is expected to further discourage “illicit” sexual intercourse among women.
  • In some cultures where female circumcision has been a tradition for hundreds of years, this procedure is considered a rite of passage for young girls. Families fear that if their daughters are left uncircumcised, they may not be marriageable.
  • FGM is associated with cultural ideals of femininity and modesty, which include the notion that girls are “clean” and “beautiful” after removal of body parts that are considered “male” or “unclean”.
  • As in most cultures, there is also the fear that the girl might bring shame to the family by being sexually active and becomingpregnant before marriage.

What The UN Has To Say

The United Nations (UN) consider female genital mutilation a violation of human rights. WHO has undertaken a number of projects aimed at decreasing the incidence of FGM. These include the following activities:

  • publishing a statement addressing the regional status of FGM and encouraging the development of national policy against itspractice,
  • organizing training for regional community workers,
  • developing educational materials for local health care workers,
  • providing alternative occupations for individuals who perform FGM procedures.

The Harmful Effects of Female Genital Mutilation

FGM has no health benefit instead it causes a lot of harm to the girls and women involved in many different ways. It involves removing and damaging healthy and normal female genital tissue, and this interferes with the natural functions of girls’ and women’s bodies. Infections can also come through the use of the various sharp objects or instruments that have been used.

Immediate complications can include severe pain, shock, haemorrhage (bleeding), tetanus or sepsis (bacterial infection), urine retention, open sores in the genital region and injury to nearby genital tissue.

Long-term consequences can include:

  • recurrent bladder and urinary tract infections;
  • cysts;
  • infertility;
  • an increased risk of childbirth complications and newborn deaths;
  • the need for later surgeries.
    For example, the FGM procedure that seals or narrows a vaginal opening   needs to be cut open later to allow for sexual intercourse and childbirth. Sometimes it is stitched again several times, including after childbirth, hence the woman goes through repeated opening and closing procedures, further increasing and repeated both immediate and long-term risks.

Facts About Female Genital Mutilation

  • Female genital mutilation (FGM) includes procedures that intentionally alter or cause injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.
  • The procedure has no health benefits for girls and women.
  • Procedures can cause severe bleeding and problems urinating, and later cysts, infections, infertility as well as complications in childbirth and increased risk of newborn deaths.
  • More than 125 million girls and women alive today have been cut in the 29 countries in Africa and Middle East where FGM is concentrated (1).
  • FGM is mostly carried out on young girls sometime between infancy and age 15.
  • FGM is a violation of the human rights of girls and women.




  1. It can lead to death
  2. Sexual disorder
  3. Spread of HIV AIDS
  4. Emotional pains
  5. Retard development
  6. Infringement of human right
  7. IT CAN LEAD TO DEATH:  Some of the traditional practice come along with pains which may eventually lead to death.
  8. SEXUAL DISORDER:  female genital mutilation may cause serious relationship disorder when the girls or lady is married.
  9. Spread of HIV/AIDS:  If female genital mutilation is carried out with infected surgical knife such person automatically becomes on HIV/AIDS patients
  10. Emotional Pains:  Women who are forced to undergo certain rituals like drinking water used I bathing the dead husband, sleeping with the dead husband in the same room, suffer from pains emotionally.
  11. Retard Development:  child marriage usually denies a girl the opportunity of developing physically, emotionally and psychologically.
  12. Infringement of Women Right:  Most of the harmful traditional practices affect women more than men.  These constitute infringement intrude on their health and reproductive right.


  1. Public enlightment
  2. Legislation
  3. School curriculum
  4. Non-governmental organization
  5. The media



  • Explain what you understand by harmful traditional practices with examples
  • State the harmful effects of female genital mutilation



Promoting Peaceful Living In Society


At the end of the topic, students should be able to:

  • Define The Concept Peace.
  • List And Explain the Types of Peace.

Lesson Content

Definition of the Concept Peace

Types Of Peace

Definition of the Concept Peace

Peace is a state of harmony, tranquility. It is a time when an individual or society is experiencing calmness. A period where there is no war or chaos in one’s life or society. Peace is a time or existence of healthy friendship and relationship.

Peaceful living, therefore, is the ability to live together in harmony and calmness with one another in society. It is a way people work together in co-operation and live together without any quarrel or war.


Types Of Peace

There are 2 types of peace namely:

  1. Positive
  2. Negative/Uneasy peace
  3. Positive Peace:This is a good and successful type of peace. It helps in the peaceful co-existence amongst people. This type comes without direct or indirect violence. It can be achieved through dialogue and peaceful negotiation.
  4. Negative/Uneasy peace: A type of peace that is achieved through force or coercion. It does not come with violence but has an undertone of suffering, denial, and hurt which often brings uneasiness to the victims.



Briefly explain the following;

  • Peace
  • Peaceful living
  • Positive peace
  • Negative Peace


Importance Of Peace


At the end of the topic, the students should be able to;

  • State The Importance Of Peace
  • Explain Different Ways Of Promoting Peace

Lesson Content

Importance of Peace

Ways Of Promoting Peace in Society


Importance of Peace

The importance of peace in the growth and development of society cannot be over-emphasized. Below are the reasons why peace must exist in the society.

  1. To remove fear and anxiety in the lives of the people.
  2. It promotes the progress, growth, and development of society.
  3. It brings about happiness and reduces stress in society
  4. It promotes tolerance and understanding amongst the people
  5. It promotes peaceful co-existence among people
  6. It encourages international co-operation and relationship

Ways of promoting peace in the society

For a society to experience peace there are various steps to be taken by individuals and the government.

Such steps include:

  1. Social Justice: For peace to reign in society the rule of law must be strictly adhered to. Justice should be given, irrespective of the persons involved. There should be fair play in any judgment and justice should not be denied or delayed.
  2. Human Rights Protection: Members of society must know their rights, their rights should not be denied. The government should be ready to respect individual rights to achieve peace in society.
  3. Tolerance:Tolerance is a factor that will promote peace when there is an understanding amongst people and people are able to accept and understand each other, peace will reign in such a community.
  4. Dialogue:For peace to exist in a society people need to sit together and dialogue. They should have a round table discussion to solve conflicts and iron out issues so that peace may reign.
  5. Co-operation:People need to work together to achieve their goals and to make peace, also to understand each other.
  6. Resolution:Conflict management and resolutions should be put in place because it is a means of achieving peace in society.


  • What will you say is the best way to live a peaceful life
  • Mention three practices that contribute to peaceful living



Conflict can be defined as a misunderstanding or disagreement between two or more people.

Conflict arises as people interact in their families, workplace, offices, social clubs, communities and countries.  Conflict occurs sometimes due to lack of cooperation.

As a nation Nigeria has witnessed a lot of conflict.  For instance, the civil war between 1967 and 1970 seriously threatened the existence of Nigeria as a nation.  Other past conflicts in Nigeria were informed of students’ riot, inter-tribal wars (Ife-Modakeke war), religious riots particularly in the north (Kano, Kaduna, Plateau, Bauchi etc). Workers strikes and protests, electoral protest leading to burning of valuable properties and destruction of live.

Types of Conflicts

Conflicts can be classified into two types; they are:

  1. Peaceful or non-violent conflict: This is defined as the conflict that does not involve the use of force; it could be inform of a disagreement of workers and management over salaries, it is a trade dispute and it is non-violent conflict because the workers and the management will hold a dialogue to resolve area of disagreement.
  2. Violent Conflict: A conflict is violent when it is not settled peacefully and it leads to war. An example is the 1967-1970 civil war in Nigeria which arose as a result of lack of co-operation among Nigerians. In a violent conflict, property is destroyed and people are displaced, injured, or killed.



Explain Conflict

Enumerate the types of conflict



Causes of conflicts

  1. Selfishness
  2. Lack of cooperation
  3. Bad leadership
  4. Lack of religious tolerance
  5. Lack of religious tolerance
  6. Communication gap
  7. Indolence and inefficiency
  8. Criminal activities


Effects of conflict in the society

  1. Breakdown of law and order
  2. Loss of lives and property
  3. Insecurity
  4. Debars progress in the society
  5. Brings disunity

Conflict resolution

Conflicts can be resolved in the following ways

  1. Dialogue
  2. Through the Law court
  3. Through the police
  4. Government intervention
  5. Through family or village head
  6. Through wars

Examples of conflict in Nigeria

  1. Nigeria civil war 1967 – 1970
  2. Hausa/Kataf conflict in Kaduna state
  3. OS crisis in Plateau state


  1. State the examples of conflicts in Nigeria
  2. List the causes and effects of conflict

Hope you got what you visited this page for? The above is the lesson note for Social Studies for JSS3 class. However, you can download the free PDF file for record purposes.

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