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Government Lesson Note for SS2 (Third Term) 2023

Government lesson note for SS2 Third Term is now available for free. The State and Federal Ministry of Education has recommended unified lesson notes for all secondary schools in Nigeria, in other words, all private secondary schools in Nigeria must operate with the same lesson notes based on the scheme of work for Government.

Government lesson note for SS2  Third Term has been provided in detail here on schoolings.org

Government Lesson Note for SS2 (Third Term) [year] 1

For prospective school owners, teachers, and assistant teachers, Government lesson note is defined as a guideline that defines the contents and structure of Government as a subject offered at SS level. The lesson note for Government for SS stage maps out in clear terms, how the topics and subtopics for a particular subject, group works and practical, discussions and assessment strategies, tests, and homework ought to be structured in order to fit in perfectly, the approved academic activities for the session.

To further emphasize the importance of this document, the curriculum for Government spells out the complete guide on all academic subjects in theory and practical. It is used to ensure that the learning purposes, aims, and objectives of the subject meant for that class are successfully achieved.

Government Lesson note for SS2 carries the same aims and objectives but might be portrayed differently based on how it is written or based on how you structure your lesson note. Check how to write lesson notes as this would help make yours unique.

The SS2 Government lesson note provided here is in line with the current scheme of work hence, would go a long way in not just helping the teachers in carefully breaking down the subject, topics, and subtopics but also, devising more practical ways of achieving the aim and objective of the subject.

The sudden increase in the search for SS2 Government lesson note for Third Term is expected because every term, tutors are in need of a robust lesson note that carries all topics in the curriculum as this would go a long way in preparing students for the West African Secondary Examination.

This post is quite a lengthy one as it provides in full detail, the government-approved lesson note for all topics and sub-topics in Government as a subject offered in SS2.

Please note that Government lesson note for SS2 provided here for Third Term is approved by the Ministry of Education based on the scheme of work.

I made it free for tutors, parents, guardians, and students who want to read ahead of what is being taught in class.

SS2 Government Lesson Note (Third Term) 2023

SCHEME OF WORK FOR GOVERNMENT   

THIRD TERM – SS TWO

SCHEME OF WORK FOR THIRD TERM 

WEEK 1:

  • REVISION
  • THE NORTHERN PEOPLES’ CONGRESS
  • THE ACTION GROUP (AG)
  • THE MINER POLITICAL PARTIES OF THE FIRST REPUBLIC UMBC, NEPU E T C
  • ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE, SOURCES OF FINANCE, OBJECTIVES AND PERFORMANCE.

WEEK 2 AND 3

  • SECOND REPUBLIC POLITICAL PARTIES DEVELOPMENT OF POLITICAL PARTIES IN NIGERIA II
  • NATIONAL PARTY OF NIGERIA (NPN)
  • UNITY PARTY OF NIGERIA (UPN)
  • NIGERIA PEOPLES’ PARTY (NPP)
  • GREAT NIGERIA PEOPLE PARTY (CNPP)
  • NIGERIA ADVANCE PARTY (NAP)
  • FORMATION, STRUCTURE, SOURCES OF FINANCE, OBJECTIVES AND PERFORMANCE

 

WEEK 4

 

  • THE THIRD AND FOURTH REPUBLICS POLITICAL PARTIES: DEVELOPMENT OF POLITICAL PARTIES IN NIGERIA III
  • SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY (SDP)
  • NATIONAL PEPUBLICAN CONVENTION/NRC
  • PEOPLES DEMOCRATIC PARTY (PDP)
  • ALL NIGERIA PEOPLES PARTY (ANPP)
  • ALLIANCE FOR DEMOCRACY (AD)
  • ACTION CONGRESS OF NIGERIA (CAN)
  • CONGRESS FOR PROGRESSIVE CHANGE (CPC)
  • OTHER MINOR POLITICAL PARTIES: FORMATION, STRUCTUREAL ORGANISATION, SOURCES OF FINANCE, OBJECTIVES AND PERFORMANCE.

WEEK 5 AND 6

  • MILITARY RULE IN NIGERIA
  • HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
  • REASONS FOR MILITARY INTERRVENTION
  • ACHIEVEMENT OF MILITARY REGISMES IN NIGERIA
  • STRUCTURE OF MILITARY REGIMES IN NIGERIA
  • WEAKNESS OF MILITARY GOVERNMENT IN NIGERIA
  • MEASURES THAT COULD BE TAKEN TO PREVENT MILITARY INTERRVENTION IN NIGERIA

WEEK 7 AND 8

  • LOCAL GOVRNMENT ADMINISTARTION IN NIGERIA
  • STRUTURE, FUNCTIONS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT, SOURCES OF FINANCE, PROBLEMS, 1976 LOCAL GOVERNMENT REFORMS
  • ROLES OF TRADITIONAL RULES IN GOVERNMENT

 

WEEK 9 AND 10

 

  • NIGERIA AND THE WORLD
  • INTERDEPENDENCE OF NATIONS: THE NEEDS FOR INTERACTIONS, MERITS AND DEMERITS
  • THE NIGERIA FOREIGN POLICY SINCE INDEPENDENCE, FACTORS THAT CAN AFFECT NIGERIA’S FOREIGN POLICY. FORMATIONLATION OF NIGERIA’S FOREIGN POLICY, FEATURES OF NIGERIA FOREIGN POLICY.

WEEK 11 AND 12

  • REVISION AND EXAMINATION.

WEEK ONE

TOPIC:

 

THE NORTHERN PEOPLES’ CONGRESS, THE ACTION GROUP (AG)

  • THE MINER POLITICAL PARTIES OF THE FIRST REPUBLIC UMBC, NEPU E T C
  • ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE, SOURCES OF FINANCE, OBJECTIVES AND PERFORMANCE.

CONTENT:

 In the North was the Northern Elements progressives Union (NEPH) a radical party founded by Mallam Aminn Kano in August 1950. The United Middle Belt Congress (UMBC) was formed in 1955 and led by J S Tarka. It demanded the creation of a Middle – Belt Region out of the Northen region. There was the Bornu youth movement (BYM) supported mainly by the Kanuris, and the Ilorin Talaka Parapo (ITP) founded by Josiah Olawoyin and with supporters among the Yoruba speaking people. In Ilorin and Karba provinces. In the Eastern Region there was the Democratic party of Nigeria and the Cameroons (DPNC) which broke away from the NCNC and was led by kingsley Mbadiwe. There was also another splinter group from the NCNC after the 1952-53 expulsion of some ministers and legislators, the United National Independent party (UNIP) led by Eyo Ita with the support of the AG.

The party fought for the creation of Calabar-ogoja Rivers State. In the wester Region were the Nigeria National Democratic party (NNDP) led by Ladoke Akintola who joined his break away group from the Action Group with that of Remi, Fani Kayode from the NCNC. There was also the Niger Delta Congress (NDC) led by Dappa Biriye and Meltord Okilo. The party started during the 1964 federal elections demanding for the creation of a River State. Alliances with major political parties.

The Action Group allied with most minority parties outside the Western Region including the UMBC, BYM, and ITP in the North and the UNIP in the East. The NCNC had an alliance with NEPU during the federal elections of 1964, the Nigerian national Alliance, (NNA) was formed from an alliance of NDC and NNDP with the NPC to rival the united progressive Grand Alliance (UPGA) which comprised the NCNC, AG, NEPU< and UMBC.

EVALUATION:

Discuss the sources of finance for the Action Group.

WEEK TWO

TOPIC: POLITICAL PARTIES IN THE SECOND REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA

CONTENT:

NATIONAL PARTY OF NIGERIA

The NPN came into existence in 1978, formed by members of the former NPC and a few from other parts of Nigeria. Some of its members were Ali Monguno, Aliyu Makaman Bida, Adamu Ciroma, Imawada, Mailama Sule, Shehu shagari, Adisa Akinloye, Richard Akinjide, MKO Abiola Olusola Saraki, k. o Mbadiwe, Joseph Tarka, c.c Onoh and Clememnt Isong

OBJECTIVES OF THE NPN

  1. Dedication to the realization of a great improvement in the general prosperity and welfare of the rural dwellers.
  2. Provision of shelter for the people of Nigeria
  3. Provision of functional and qualitative education at the primary, secondary vocational technical and university levels in accordance with the Nigeria constitution.
  4. Provision of food for the people through the policy of “green Revolution”
  5. A comprehensive programme of rapid industrialization.

 

SOURCES OF FINANCE OF NPN

The NPN was financed through donations, levels, allocations, from the federal Electoral commission, sale of party publicity items, and membership subscription

ACHIEVEMENT

 

  • The NPN was the most national of all the five political parties in the second republic.
  • In 1979, the party won-gubernatorial elections in seven states while it won twelve in 1983 before the military took over.
  • It won the presidential elections twice (1979 and 1083). However, the second tenure was only three months old before the military took over.
  • It won the most seats in the house of representative and senate.

ORGANISATION AND SUPPORT OF THE NPN

The NPN maintained a secretariat at each of its four levels of organization, via the district and ward levels the town and local government level, the state level and the national level with officers to run each level.

There was a national executive and a national working committee. The NPN zoned most important positions in the party among the Northern, Western, eastern and minority groups.

The Unity party of Nigeria (UPN) Obafemi Awolowo was the founder and leader of the UPN. Other key members included Adekunle ajasin, Lateef Jakande, Mck Ajuluchukwu, Professor F.A Alli, Bola Ige, Philip Umeadi, J. S Olawonyi and S. m afolabi. Clement Gomwalk from Benue state was the national secretary while the national treasurer was Chia Surma from Benue state.

 

OBJECTIVES OF THE UPN

  • Free education at all levels for all citizens of Nigeria, and free and compulsory education at primary and secondary levels for children between the ages of six and seventeen. Special encouragement would be given to science and technology.
  • Integrated rural development to encourage agriculture, boost the production of food and prevent continuous migration from the rural areas to urban areas.
  • Full and gainful employment for all above-bodies Nigeria citizens.
  • Free Health services for all citizens of Nigeria.

ORGANISATION AND SUPPORT OF THE UPN

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The UPN organized its members at different levels including the ward or local levels, state constituency with representative from all local government state executive council, state conferences for all members in each state chaired by the state governor.

SOURCES OF FINANCE OF THE UPN

The UPN was financed through allocation from the federal Electroral commission, ,e,bership subscription, donations, sales of party publicity items, and special levy on members of the party elected or appointed to governmental posts.

ACHIEVENMENTS OF THE UPN

  1. The party implemented its four basic programmes, including free education and free health care in all states under its control.
  2. The party won the gubernatorial elections in five states in 1983.
  3. The party came second in the presidential elections of both 1979 and 1983 and had the second largest numbers of legislators in the representatives.

EVALUATION

  1. Account for the achievements of the NPN
  2. List the achievements of the UPN

WEEK 3

TOPIC: NIGERIA N PEOPLES PARTY

CONTENT:

Three different groups – the club 19, the progressive front of the Eastern states and Lagos and the National council of under- standing and solidarity (NCUS) were merged in 1977 and 1978 to become the Nigerian peoples party. Solomon Lar, Paul Unongo and some others, represented club 19, Adeniran Ogunsanya and a few others stood for the progressive front while Waziri Ibrahim, leader of the NCUS represented the council.

 

OBJECTIVES OF THE NPP

  1. To promotes the unity of Nigeria and sustain her political and territorial sovereignty.
  2. To work for full employment of Nigeria’s manpower and natural resources with a view to building a self- reliant economy.
  3. To promote at all levels, equality of the people of Nigeria without discrimination, including the distribution of national resources
  4. To work towards a truly secular state which upholds democratic principles and fundamental human right.

SOURCES OF FINANCES OF THE NPP

The NPP received funds through party registration and membership fees, levies, subscription of members and branches proceeds from entertainments, donations, sales of publicity items, and allocations from FEDECO.

ORGANISATION AND SUPPORT OF THE NPP

The NPP organised its members at the following levels. The ward/town district level and local government area, each had an executive committee. There were also state organization, with each state having a consultative committee, the executive committee, working committee, the parliamentary council of the state, senatorial, zonal meeting, and the state conventions.

Much of the support for the NPP was from the old Anambra and Imo states in the East and Plateau and Benue states in the North. It had alliance assembly to facilitate the success of the NPN controlled federal government bills in the houses.

THE GREAT NIGERIA PEOPLE PARTY (GNPP)

The GNPP emerged as a splinter group from the NPP in the latter party’s insist of November 1978. It was formed and led by Wasiri Ibrahim. He was the party’s executive president and presidential candidate in both 1979 and 1983 elections. Other leaders of the party included Mohammed Goni and abubakar Barde that eventually became governors of Benue and Gongola states respectively

OBJECTIVES OF THE GNPP

  1. Promotion and sustenance of the unity of Nigeria
  2. Equal opportunity for all Nigerians regardless of ethnic, group, religion or sex.
  3. Equitable distribution of national wealth for the development of all parts of Nigeria.
  4. Dynamic foreign policy and better life for all Nigerians.

THE SLOGAN OF THE GNPP WAS POLITIES WITHOUT BITTERNESS.

SOURCES OF FINANCE OF THE GNPP

Waziri Ibrahim almost single-handedly financed the GNPP at inception, the party later received funds through allocations from FEDECO, membership subscription, levies and donations.

 

THE NIGERIAN ADVANCE PARTY (NAP)

The party was registered on 25th may, 1982 to contest the 1983 general elections. The party had change, radical change as its watchword. A Lagos Lawyer, Tunji Braithwaite was the founder, party leader and presidential candidate. Other prominent leaders of the NAP included Emeka Onyemelukwe, Usman Girei, Dare Omobayo.Joseph sodinenye,Uba Mohammed, Musa Salami, Reuben Kutok. It involved youngruen and women in politics. NAP contested only sixteen out of nineteen governorship seats and won no election at the state or federal level.

SOURCES OF FINANCE OF THE NAP

NAP’S finances came from the party’s leader and presidential candidate Tunji Braithwaite. However, NAP depended on FEDECO allowance, membership fees, levies and donations

OBJECTIVES OF THE NAP

  1. Eradication of mosquitoes and rats
  2. A low-cost health insurance policy for all Nigerians
  3. Regular supply of clean pipe-borne water for all Nigerians.
  4. Socialism, freedom from exploitation and freedom from harassment for all Nigerians.
  5. The provision of modern roads, sidewalks and comfortable accommodation for the Nigeria citizenry.

 

EVALUATION

Account for the objectives of the NPP

WEEK FOUR

TOPIC: ORGANISATION OF THE NRC AND SDP

CONTENT:

Any Nigerian not below eighteen years of age could register at his ward as a member of either party, irrespective of the person religion, ethnic group, place of birth, sex, social or economic status.

PARTY LEADERSHIP AND SUPPORT OF NRC AND SDP

The two parties were established by Babangida regime in July 1986

 

N R C S D P

The chairman: Tom Ikimi: The chairman: Baba Gana Kingibe

Deputy chairman: S.O Lawani Vice chairman: Augustine Ademola

National Secretary: Usman Alhaji National Secretary: Ebene Osieke

Publicity Secretary: Doyin Okupe Publicity Secretary: David Iornen

Treasurer: Chris Adighije Treasurer: Hammani Bazza

Financial Secretary: Abubakar Buba Financial Secretary: Frank Kokori

Legal Adviser: Rafiu Ariso Legal Adviser: Ogana Lukpata

Auditor: Aliyu Yelwa Auditor: Sambo Mohammed Koko

 

Both parties had national spread and support that seemed about equal.

OBJECTIVES OF THE NRC

  1. Encouragement of a a free enterprise economy giving an opportunity to every Nigerian to own any business of their choice.
  2. Creating opportunities for a political economy of a highly competitive market.

OBJECTIVES OF THE SDP

  1. Build a self-reliant economy depending on the nation’s resources and individuals’ contributions
  2. Bridge the gap between the rich and the poor by providing gainful employment for all Nigerians towards an equitable distribution of resources.

SOURCES OF REVENUE FOR THE NRC AND SDP

The major source of revenue of the two parties was government subvention, supplemented by annual membership fees (as decided by each party) and donations with limitations that no organization or individual should in a year, contribute more than #100,000 to a party nor more than #50,000 to a party candidate.

THE ALL NIGERIA PEOPLES PARTY (ANPP)

The All Nigeria people’s party is the result of the merger of the all people’s part and Nigerian people’s party led by Admiral Augustus Aikhomu.

During the 1999 presidential election, the APP had an alliance with the Alliance for Democrary party, to present Chief Olufalae of the AD as the presidential candidates, while Alhaji Umaru Shinkafi of the APP won nine states during the gubernatorial election.

In the 2003 election, the ANPP had the former military head of state, General Muhammadu Buhari (rtd) as its presidential candidates and Dr Chuba Okadigbo as his running mate.

ANPP MANIFESTO

  1. To uphold and defend the constitution of the federal Republic of Nigeria.
  2. To attain political power through legitimate, democratic and constitutional means.
  3. To give free universal compulsory and purposeful education at all levels.
  4. To develop agriculture, commerce and industry by means of integrated rural development.
  5. To institutionalize a purposeful mobilization of the activity and resources of the people of Nigeria.

THE ALLIANCE FOR DEMOCRACY

The alliance for Democracy (AD) members comprised of politicians who vehemently opposed the Abacha regime under the umbrella of the National Democracy Coalition (NADECO) and other pro-democracy groups. They included Chief Abraham Adesanya, Ayo Adebanjo, Cornelius Adebayo, Ayo Opadokun, Bola Ige, Debo Akande, Arthur Nwankwo, Tanko Yusuf, yusuf Mamman, Solanke Onasana, Dr. Udenta O. Udenta, Chief Chukwnemeka Ezeife, Adebayo Adefarati, Bassey Ekpo, Segun Osoba and Chief Olufalae.

 

ALLIANCE FOR DEMOCRACY MANIFESTO

  1. To uphold the constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria.
  2. To attain political power through legitimate, democratic and constitutional means, for the purpose of cultivating an egalitarian society based on the principles of equality, freedom and social justice.
  3. To promote unity and political stability of Nigeria by institung the principle of power-sharing and rotation of key public officers among the country.
  4. To enthrone freedom and eliminate poverty, want, ignorance, discrimination of all kinds, corruption and exploitation.
  5. To pursue a dynamic foreign policy.

 

THE PEOPLES’ DEMOCRATIC PARTY

The peoples’ Democratic party was formed by a number of political associations. These associations merged to form the party on 19 August 1998. Some of these Nigerians included Chief Solomon Lar, Philip Asiodu, Dr alex Ekwueme, Don Etiebet, Dr John Nwobodo (Jnr), Graham Douglas, Olusegun Obasanjo, Atiku Abubakar, David Jemibewon, Tony Aneni, Dr Iyorcha Ayu and Gabriel Igbinedion.

 

P D P MANIFESTO

  1. To promote and nurture democratic ideals and traditions on a sustainable basis.
  2. To promote and establish political stability in Nigeria and foster national integration.
  3. To promote and defend the Nigerian federal system of government.
  4. To support private entrepreneurship
  5. To promote industries using locally available raw materials.

 

ACHIEVEMENT OF THE P D P ADMINISTRATION

  1. To maintain the loyalty of the military, the party retired all former political office holders in the military.
  2. Efforts were made to recover all looted public money
  3. The president appointed experienced politicians, technocrats and retired military officers into his cabinet.
  4. His administration improved the condition of service of the workers and judicial officers.
  5. Nigeria played a positive role in the establishment of the African Union and NEPAD.
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SHORTCOMING OF THE P D P REGIME.

  1. Intra-party wrangling and disputes.
  2. Open disagreement between the executive and the legislature.
  3. Poor handling of the Niger Delta and other exthnic crises
  4. Poor handling of the economy
  5. Mounting allegations of corruption and nepotism.

EVALUATION:

Critically examine the recognition of the N R C and S D P as the two major political parties in 1989.

WEEK 5

TOPIC: MILITARY RULE IN NIGERIA

CONTENT:

The first military coup in Nigeria took place on 15th January 1966 led by major Chukwunma Kaduna Nzeogwu, but the then most senior military officer, Major General J.T.U. Aguiyi-Ironsi later took over position of the Head of state.

MILITARY RULE: 1966 – 1975

FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE MILITARY COUP OF 15 JANUARY 1966

  1. Regionalization of political parties. The polities in Nigeria before independence and during the first Republic were ethnically and regionally based.
  2. Intra-party rivalry: The most significant intra-party conflict was that of the western region of 1962 and 1963 in the action Group.
  3. Census crisis of 1962/63: there were gross discrepancies in the census figures of May 1962 and that of November 1963. The 1963 census figures was still disputed this gave the Northern Region dominance over the whole south.
  4. 1964 federal elections: The 1964 election was attended with much shoddiness, alleged corruption and other malpractices.
  5. Influence of other coups: other coups in Africa with the latest being that of Togo on 13 January 1966 encourage the military to do a similar thing in Nigeria.

 

ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE 1966 – 1975 MILITARY REGIMES

  1. Major General Ironsi made some impact during his short rule. He restored normalcy, especially in the west, after the coup. He sought to build a stronger, united nation by instituting unitary system.
  2. Gowon created twelve states which allowed better development in the areas.
  3. He succeeded in ending the civil war in three years, embarked on reconciling with the Igbo and much reconstruction in the war ravaged East.
  4. The National Youth service Corps (NYSC) scheme was established and this encouraged mobility of Labour and unity among Nigerians.
  5. Gowon did not put in place any political project like the formation, registration of political parties. This led to the 29thJuly 1975 coup.

 

ACHIEVEMNET OF THE MURTALA/OBASANJO REGIME

  1. National purge: The administration from its inception stated clearly its mission of ridding the public service of corruption and redundancy.
  2. Creation of states: The regime created additional even states, bringing the total number of states to nineteen.
  3. Local government reform: The administration restructured the local government system and standardized it throughout Nigeria.
  4. Dynamic foreign policy: The nation spear headed support for the newly independent Angolan government and Liberation movement in Namiba, Mozambique and South Africa.
  5. Return to civil rule: A federal electoral commission was established which registered five parties that contested the 1979 elections, ushering in Alhaji Shehu shagari as the first civilian executive president of Nigeria on 1stOctober 1979.

FAILURES OF THE MURTALA/ OBASANJO

  1. The public service probes and purge meant to instil discipline and a sense of probity were carried out discriminatorily in many cases.
  2. General Obasanjo’s operation feed the Nation failed to stop the inadequacy of local food production.
  3. Mass poverty continued as there was no programme of redistribution of wealth.

 

ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE BUHARI/ IDIAGBON REGIME

  1. The new regime took major steps towards revamping the economy and recovery of embezzled funds.
  2. It launched War against Indispline which encouraged order lines, moral probity, cleanliness and a general sense of direction and patriotism.
  3. The regime reorganized the country foreign missions with a view to cutting costs as much as possible.
  4. The Buhari administration allocated graeter funds for the development of agriculture.

FAILURE OF THE BUHARI REGIME

  1. The Buhari regime was considered by many as being repressive.
  2. The regime’s programme of ridding the public service of corrupt officially led to in discriminated mass retrenchment and unemployment.
  3. The regime had no well defined foreign policy and so could not maintain the dynamism of the murtaala/obasanjo foreign policy.
  4. The regime took many steps on very important issues without due consultations with senior military officers, opinion leader, experts and other well- meaning Nigeria. It was an isolated regime.

EVALUATION:

  1. Account for the factors that led to the 1983 military coup in Nigeria
  2. Account for the achievement of Buhari/Idiagbon

WEEK SIX

TOPIC: ACHIEVEMENT OF THE BABAHGIDA ADMINISTRATION

CONTENT:

  1. Upon assumption of office, the regime abrogated the unpopular decree No 2 and then reorganize the Nigerian security organization.
  2. The structural Adjustment programme (SAP) was introduced to restructure the economy.
  3. There was commercialization and privatization of many parastatals in order to enhance their efficiency and productivity.
  4. The regime established the peoples Bank and community Bank to help the poor in both urban and rural areas.
  5. The programme “Better Life for Rural women” was established to improve the lot of women.

FAILURES OF THE BABANGIDA ADMINISTARTION

  1. The regime was characterized by a high level of indiscipline and corruption.
  2. During this regime, incidents of hard drugs pushing by Nigerians became rampant.
  3. Most of the bodies established and generously funded by the Babangida regime later became avenues for the self-environment of a few e.g DFRRI, MAMSER and peoples’ bank.
  4. There was little respect for popular opinion. The regime took IMF loan and swallowed $12.8 billion United States dollars realized during Gulf war between USA and Iraq.
  5. The regime annulled the June 12th1993 presidential election believed to have been won by late business Mogul Bashorun MKO Abiola.

THE ABACHA ADMINISTRATION

General Sanni Abacha came to power on 17th November 1993 having forced Chief Ernest Shonekan to resign as the head of the Interim National Government. General Abacha was the secretary of Defence in the same administration. The provisional ruling council (P R C) was the highest organ of government and it comprised of the head of state as chairman and the chief of General statff (Lt- General Oladipo Diya) as vice chairman and the service chiefs.

ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE ABACA ADMINISTRATION

  1. The administration brought relative peace, law and order.
  2. There was stability in the exchange rate of the naira.
  3. Abacha regime created six states namely Ekiti, Ebonyi, Zamfara, Nasarawa, Kebbi and Bayelsa in 1996.
  4. It created the federal character commission to address the imbalance in federal appointment
  5. The National reconciliation committee headed by chief alex Akinyele was created to attempt to resolve various conflicts in the country.

FAILURES OF ABACHA’S REGIME

  1. Abacha’s regime became dictatorial, thereby paying very little attention to the constitution.
  2. The economy became paralyzed with shortages of essential goods and commodities.
  3. There were bomb blasts in several parts of the country
  4. Members of National Democratic Coalition (NADECO) that were pro-democracy activities fled into exile.
  5. Abacha and his associates reportedly looted the national treasury and slashed huge loot abroad.

THE REGIME OF GENERAL ABDUSALAM ABUBAKAR

General Abdusalam Abubakar became the head of state and commander in chief of the armed forces, following the death of General Sanni Abacha on 8th June 1998. He initiated a ten-month transition programme that would return the nation to civil rule on 29th of may 1999

ACHIEVEMENT OF ABUBAKAR’S REGIME

  1. General Abubakar successfully conducted the transition to civil rule, and handed over power to a popularly elected government.
  2. The government set up a review panel for the 1995 constitution
  3. The electoral commission (INEC) offered provisional registration to nine political parties, out of which three of them, namely AD, APP and PDP were registered.
  4. The regime returned full democracy to the country.
  5. The government released political detainees incarcerated by Abacha administration.

FAILURES OF ABUBAKAR’S REGIME

  1. The constitution was hastily produced
  2. The government could not alleviate the economic difficulties facing the nation, for example, shortage of fuel and depreciation of the naira
  3. The foreign policy lacked vibrancy
  4. The government could not eliminate corruption among officials of the government.
  5. It failed to release chief MKO Abiola from detention.

 

EVALUATION:

  1. Account for the achievenment of Babangida administration
  2. How do we prevent military intervention in politics
  3. General Sanni abacha is the worst military Nigeria ever had, discuss this statement in line with the failures of his regime.

WEEK SEVEN

TOPIC: LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIA

CONTENT:

Each local government council was in charge of a geographical area, and the chairman and other councilors were popularly elected into the councils by the electorate in the area.

 

FUNCTIONS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT

  1. Maintenance of law and order. Local government maintain law and order through byelaws which they enact to ensure orderly conduct, avoid breaches of the peace and protect lives and property in their area of operation.
  2. Provision of motor parks and markets for the inhabitants of their localities.
  3. Local government collected rates, fees, and rents for the development of their area. E.g. tenement rates, radio and television fees etc.
  4. Registration of births, deaths and marriages and issue appropriate certificates for these.
  5. Establishment of customary courts to handle dispute in their areas.
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SOURCES OF REVENUE FOR LOCAL OVERNMENT

  1. Grants from the federal or state government: Grants are money made available to lacal government to help them carry out their programme.
  2. Statutory allocation: Local government receive a percentage of the federally generated revenue annually.
  3. Special levies: this refers to levies imposed on the residents of local governmnets as a means of generating internal revenue.
  4. Rates are collected on market stalls, motor parks, supermarkets and shops. Also motor-cycle, licenses, television and radio sets, etc.
  5. Income from commercial ventures like transport services, farms, holiday resorts, consultancy services, guest houses etc.

EVALUATION:

Account for the sources of local government revenue.

WEEK EIGHT

 

TOPIC: PROBLEMS OF LOCAL GOVERNMNET

CONTENT:

  1. LACK OF FUND: Most local government do not have enough means of generating funds internally.
  2. Lack of adequately trained personnel:  Local government do not have enough professionally qualified and experienced technicians, craftsmen, etc in fulfilling the purpose of their establishment.
  3. Political interference: political parties interfere with the appointment of personnel along party lines in local government where their members are in power.
  4. Bribery and corruption involving the officials of local governments undermine the effective performance of the local government administration.
  5. Ethnicity, nepotism and favoritism: These feature in the appointment promotion discipline and transfer of local government staff.

THE 1976 LOCAL GOVERNMENT REFORMS

THE MURTALA/OBASANJO REGIME EFFECTED A UNIFORM LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION THROUGH OUT THE COUNTRY IN 1976

  1. The 1976 reform introduced a uniform system whereby the native authorities, municipal councils, district and country council were scrapped and replaced with the title of local government council nationwide.
  2. The federal government introduced the local government service board or commission throughout the country that control appointments, promotion, transfer and discipline of local government employees.
  3. The federal government became directly involved in the administration of the local government through policy guidelines.
  4. The reform excluded traditional ruler from the local government councils.
  5. The reforms democratized the local government councils as the chairmen and councilors were elected to serve full time for three years.

ROLES OF TRADITIONAL RULERS IN GOVERNMENT

  1. They are the custodian of custom and traditions of their people and seen as royal fathers.
  2. They serve as link with the people and the government in carrying out government functions.
  3. They settled disputes and inter-communal clashes in their respective domain
  4. They collect taxes for the government.

EVALUATION

  1. How would you proffer solution to the problems facing local government in Nigeria?
  2. What are the roles of traditional rulers in government? Discuss.

WEEK NINE

TOPIC: NIGERIA AND THE WORLD

CONTENT:

Consequent upon the establishment of the Nigeria state by 1900 and subsequent amalgamation in 1914 Nigeria has been relating with other state as individual countries.

The following are the reasons for such relations:

  1. ECONOMIC: Nigeria’s economic interaction with the outside world involves our sale of minerals like oil, tin, and gold and cash crops like cocoa and cotton to other countries. Economic relations are also needed in the areas of exchange of technical know-how.
  2. POLITICAL: Nigeria interacts with other countries politically to promote her image, enhance her economic interests, protect her territorial integrity and ensure good relations with neighbouring countries.
  3. SOCIA-CULTURAL: Socio-cultural interaction between nations provides friendly relationship and the enrichment of each countries’ culture, music and sports.

ADVANTAGES OF INTERACTION

  1. The spread of technological knowledge: The interactions that exist between nations provide technological exchange to the developing countries.
  2. ECONOMIC DEVELOPNMNENT: The interaction of nation’s facilities economic development.
  3. PROVISION OF EMPLOYMENT: Interactions between countries lead to the establishment of foreign missions like embassies high commissions and international agencies which provide employment opportunism for the citizens of the most nation.
  4. DEFENCE: Defence pacts are signed between nations to ensure that one nation can aid another if attached.
  5. Closer ties with industrial powers of the world: Interaction among nations provides ample opportunity for poor nations to relate with powerful nations for economic and military advantages.

 

DISADVANTAGES OF INTERACTION

  1. Dependency: Interaction among nations creates dependency of one nation upon the other.
  2. Exploitation of developing countries: The interaction of nations in the international system has resulted in the exploitation of the developing countries by the advanced nations of the world.
  3. Cultural Alienation: sometimes citizens of a nation copy the dressing, language, musical forms and other cultural traits of an interacting countries to the neglect of their own which they see as inferior.
  4. Social problems: One of the consequences of interactions of nations is the refugee problem. No thanks to refugee crises from Africa and Syria plaguing Western Europe in recent past looking for greener pastures.
  5. Brain Drain: Interactions among nations lead to the mass movement of professionals such as doctor, nurses, teachers etc from developing countries to advanced nations.

 

EVALUATION:

Account for the disadvantages of nations interacting with each other.

WEEK TEN

TOPIC: THE NIGERIA FOERIGN POLICY SINCE INDEPENCE

CONTENT:

Nigeria right from the period of in dependence in 1960 embraced non-aligned policy, the countries was pro-west and anti- East from 1960-66. It was the civil war of 1967 that made Nigeria foreign policy to be relatively balanced towards the two ideological blocs. Nevertheless,,

  1. Abrogation of the defence pact with Britain in 1962 as a result of students protest.
  2. Nigeria received military aid from the former Soviet Union (U S S R) during the civil war.
  3. Lifting of ban on communist Literature by the government.
  4. Establishment of embassies in the two blocs.
  5. Nigeria broke her diplomatic relationship with France when the latter carried out atomic bomb test in the Sahara desert in 1961
  6. Nigeria under General Obasanjo nationalized British Petroleum and Barclays Bank as a result of British support for the white Minority rule of Ian smith in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and the then racist enclave in South Africa.
  7. Nigeria condemned the invasion of Afghanistan by the defunct U S S R, Falkland Island by Britain and Panama by the U S A.

 

African as a Centre-piece of Nigeria’s foreign policy is a move which make Africa the foundation of her foreign policy, i.e Nigeria had to give priority to Africa in her external relations.

  1. Nigeria gave financial and moral supports to liberation movements’ e.g M P L A in Angola and SWAPO in Namiba which invariably led to the independence of these countries.
  2. A Nigeria, General Joe Garba was the chairman of United Nations committee on apartheid in South Africa.
  3. Nigeria played a dominant role in the formation of former O A U and its sustenance.
  4. She played an important role in the formation of ECOWAS.
  5. Nigeria played a prominent role in conflict resolution in Africa – ECOMOG peace keeping force in Liberia and Sierra-Leone under General Babangida. This gave Nigeria an observer status in the United Nations Security Council, New York.

Nigeria and Non –Alignment even through Nigeria shared the idea of neutrality from the competing supper-power, she was more of a friend to the capitalist West than the socialist countries of Eastern Europe.

Following the attainment of independent in 1960, the leadership of the country openly to rejected non-alignment and opted for membership of the commonwealth under the leadership of Great Britain. Nigeria then was therefore neither neutral nor non-aligned in the early years of her independence. She voted along with Great Britain in most of the UN deliberations.

The signing of the Anglo-Ni gerian Defence pact once again demonstrated the country’s alignment with Britain and her European allies. The country’s attitude towards the movement however changed with the signing of O A U chapter in 1963 which declared the policy of non-alignment and appealed to O A U members’ states to attend the second meeting of the non- aligned movement taking place in cairo, Egypt in1964.

The peak of Nigeria’s foreign policy neutrality emerged in 1975 when General Murtala muhammed recognized the popular movement for the peoples’ Liberation of Angola (M P L A). This invariably sparked off diplomatic disputes between Nigeria and United States on ideological grounds.

EVALUATION

  1. Howhas Nigeria demonstrated Africa as Centre-piece of her foreign policy?
  2. What is Non-aligned movement?
  3. Account for Nigeria posture on Non-Aligned movement.

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