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Government Lesson Note for SS2 (First Term) 2024

Government lesson note for SS2 First Term is now available for free. The State and Federal Ministry of Education has recommended unified lesson notes for all secondary schools in Nigeria, in other words, all private secondary schools in Nigeria must operate with the same lesson notes based on the scheme of work for Government.

Government lesson note for SS2  First Term has been provided in detail here on

Government Lesson Note for SS2 (First Term) [year] 1


For prospective school owners, teachers, and assistant teachers, Government lesson note is defined as a guideline that defines the contents and structure of Government as a subject offered at SS level. The lesson note for Government for SS stage maps out in clear terms, how the topics and subtopics for a particular subject, group works and practical, discussions and assessment strategies, tests, and homework ought to be structured in order to fit in perfectly, the approved academic activities for the session.

To further emphasize the importance of this document, the curriculum for Government spells out the complete guide on all academic subjects in theory and practical. It is used to ensure that the learning purposes, aims, and objectives of the subject meant for that class are successfully achieved.

Government Lesson note for SS2 carries the same aims and objectives but might be portrayed differently based on how it is written or based on how you structure your lesson note. Check how to write lesson notes as this would help make yours unique.

The SS2 Government lesson note provided here is in line with the current scheme of work hence, would go a long way in not just helping the teachers in carefully breaking down the subject, topics, and subtopics but also, devising more practical ways of achieving the aim and objective of the subject.

The sudden increase in the search for SS2 Government lesson note for First Term is expected because every term, tutors are in need of a robust lesson note that carries all topics in the curriculum as this would go a long way in preparing students for the West African Secondary Examination.

This post is quite a lengthy one as it provides in full detail, the Government-approved lesson note for all topics and sub-topics in Government as a subject offered in SS2.

Please note that Government lesson note for SS2 provided here for First Term is approved by the Ministry of Education based on the scheme of work.

I made it free for tutors, parents, guardians, and students who want to read ahead of what is being taught in class.

SS2 Government Lesson Note (First Term) 2024




  1. Electoral Process
  2. Election meaning, Types and Purposes

3&4 Electoral system

The Electoral commission

  1. Public Opinion

6&7 Civil Service: Meaning, Characteristics, Structure and functions.

Problems and control of Civil service

Ombudsman (Public Complaint Commission)

Meaning and functions

Police force: Functions of the Police force

Public corporations: Meaning, Reasons for setting up of Public Corporations,Problems and suggested solutions.

  1. Local Government

Meaning, Types, Function, Problems and solutions.

Sources of Finance/Funds.

  1. Pre-colonial Administration in Nigeria

Hausa/Fulani Traditional Political system

  1. Pre-colonial Administration

Yoruba Political system

Igbo Political system

11-13 Revision and Examination

Week: 1st

Sub-Topic: Franchise

Ref. Books: Ibiyemi Oyeneye Round up Government for Senior Secondary Certificate, Longman Plc 2006, Lagos Pp. 84-86.

Lesson Objectives:  By the end of the lesson, the students should be able to.

  1. Define Franchise and state its types
  2. Identify the merits and the demerits of each types of franchise
  • State the qualification and disqualification for the exercise of franchise.


Key Vocabulary: Bankruptcy, Alien, Universal adult suffrage e.t.c

Resource Materials:  Chart, textbooks, Internet etc.

Building Material:  The students are with the term – Election.

Content: Franchise.


Franchise is the right of adult citizens of a nation to vote in an election.  In every country there is always an electoral law that stipulates the qualification of electors and those to be elected.


The process of enfranchisement is therefore the way each citizen fulfills the conditions/ laws that make him eligible as a voter.


Types of Franchise

  1. Limited Franchise refers to the right of only a section of the community to vote and be voted for.  The right to vote and be voted for is enjoyed only by some citizens that fulfill what the relevant law demands, especially in terms of sex, age, property ownership and educational qualifications.
  2. Universal Adult Suffrage refers to the right of all qualified adults to vote and be voted for. This type of suffrage is unlimited except in respect of those excluded by law on account of insanity, doubtful moral standing being aliens, etc.


Merits of Limited/Restricted Franchise

  1. Responsible Decision
  2. It reduces the incidence of violence
  3. Mature and informed minds
  4. Make use of qualified candidates
  5. Property ownership


Demerits of Limited/Restricted Franchise

  1. It is unconstitutional
  2. Limited political education
  3. Opportunity of voting is not given to qualified adults
  4. No popular choice
  5. The system is unrepresentative


Unlimited/Universal Adult Suffrage

It is the rights of all adult citizens of a state to vote and be voted for after satisfying certain requirements.


Merits of Unlimited /Universal Adult Suffrage

  1. It gives room for full participation
  2. It is democratic and constitutional
  3. No discrimination
  4. Popularly elected representatives


Demerits of Universal/Unlimited Adult suffrage

  1. Lack of political Education
  2. No true representation
  3. Intimidation of opponents
  4. Electoral malpractices


Qualifications for Suffrage

  1. Citizenship only citizens of a country are allowed to vote. Aliens are disallowed from voting/or being voted for.
  2. Age: There is usually a voting Age – 18years in Nigeria, 16 years in the united kingdom
  3. Tax payment is a condition for voting and being voted for in some elections.
  4. Sanity: Persons of unsound mind are usually excluded from voting or being voted for.
  5. Registration: only those who had registered for elections can vote or be voted for.


Disqualifications for the exercise of Franchise

  1. Insanity
  2. Under Age youths and children are not expected to vote.
  3. Criminal records or doubtful character
  4. Bankruptcy
  5. Alien cannot vote.


1.Explain five condition necessary for voting in Nigeria

2.What are the criteria that can disqualify a voter tovote in Nigeria?


Week: 2nd

Lesson title: Election

Ref. Books: Ibiyemi Oyeneye Round up Government for Senior Secondary Certificate, Longman Publishers, Lagos 2006 Pp. 85-92.

Lesson Objectives:  By the end of the lesson, the students should be able to.

  1. Define Election and state its purposes
  2. Mention the types of election
  • Identify the condition necessary for the conduct of a free and fair election.

Building materials: the students are already familiar with election.

Content: Election

Election can be defined as the act of electing people into different offices in government.


Purposes/Functions of government

  1. Accountability of Government.

When the people’s aspirations and wishes are not reflected in government policies and programmes, the electorate can affect a change of leadership during elections.  Thanks to coming to power of President Muhammadu Buhari of APC he defeated incumbent Goodluck Ebele Jonathan of PDP.

  1. Legitimacy of government
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Legitimacy of government affords representatives the opportunity of exercising government powers on behalf of the citizenry.

  1. Political participation: Elections make it possible for the people to participate as voters or officer seekers.
  2. Smooth leadership succession.

Elections are held to provide smooth leadership succession by voting

  1. Patriotism: Elections encourage a sense of identification and nationhood when it is free and fair.


Types of Election

  1. Direct Election
  2. Indirect Election
  3. Bye Election
  4. Run-off Election
  5. Primary Election
  6. Referendum


Organization of Election

  1. Electoral Acts
  2. Setting up of Electoral commission
  3. Delimitation of constituency
  4. Registration of political parties.
  5. Registration and display of voters register
  6. Nomination of candidates.
  7. Campaign
  8. Voting
  9. Announcement of Result


Conditions Necessary for a Free and Fair Election

  1. Conducive atmosphere

Eligible voters are allowed to exercise their voting rights without fear of intimidation, harassment or compulsion.

  1. Equality of citizens

Every citizens is regarded as being equal to others, and Franchise is based on one man one vote.

  1. Independent Electoral Commission

This is a neutral and impartial electoral commission to take full responsibility for all the elections.

  1. Display of voters Register

The Register contain names of voters is displayed before and during elections to include all eligible voters and avoid double voting.

  1. Independent Judiciary

There is an independent Judiciary to interpret the electoral laws and entertain election petitions from candidates that suspect malpractices before, during or after elections for upturning of decisions.

Week: 3rd

Class: SS II

Lesson title: Electoral system

Sub-lesson: Types of Electoral system

Ref. Books: J. U Anyaele, comprehensive Government for senior Secondary Schools, Johnson Publishers, Lagos 2003 pp 97 – 100

Resource Material: Textbook, Chart, Internet e.t.c

Lesson Objectives:  By the end of the lesson, the students should be able to

  1. Define Electoral system and explain its types
  2. Identify the characteristics of electoral system.



Electoral system is the methods and procedures of electing representatives into political offices by the citizens of a country.

Types of Electoral systems

  1. Proportional Representation: it is used to elect representatives in multi-member constituencies.  Seats are allocated to  political parties in proportion to the percentages of votes scored by each of them.  It is of two types.
  2. Single Transferable vote
  3. The List system
  4. Plurality System or simple Majority:

This is a system whereby the person that secures the greatest number of votes is declared elected.

  1. Absolute Majority: in the absolute majority system of voting, a candidate must score more than half of the votes cast before he can be declared winner.
  2. Second Ballot System: this is a system whereby if no candidate is deemed elected during the first poll, the two candidates with the highest number of votes shall go second poll until a clear winner emerges.
  3. The alternative System: This system allow voters to vote for more than one candidate in order of preferences.


Characteristics of Electoral System

  1. Independent Body: An independent and impartial electoral body should be put in place.
  2. All interest in the society should be represented in the Legislature.
  3. The Judiciary should be independent and impartial.
  4. There should be regular election as stated in the constitution.
  5. Secret ballot method of election should be adopted.

Counting of vote should be made public and with immediate release of results


Week: Four

Class: SS II

 Lesson title: Types of Electoral Systems

Sub-lesson: Merit and demerits of each types

Ref. Books: A. Olusola Oyewole, The substance of Government for Senior Secondary Schools,

Instructional Material: Textbook, Chart, Internet e.t.c

Lesson Objectives:  By the end of the lesson, the students should be able to

  1. Mention the merits and demerits of proportional representation
  2. Identify the merits and demerits of plurality system
  • State the merits and the demerits of Absolute majority system.

Building materials: The students are familiar with knowledge of Electoral system.



Merits of Proportional Representation

  1. It is democratic in nature
  2. It gives room for one man, one vote, one value
  • It permits free expression
  1. It reflects the views of all areas, groups and persuasions
  2. It widened voters’ choice.
  3. It gives equal weights to all seats.


Demerits of Proportional Representation

  1. It is a difficult electoral system
  2. It reduces party discipline
  3. It is mostly based on false assumption
  4. It may encourage weak government since each party is represented according to its population.


Merits of Plurality System or Simple Majority

  1. It is cheaper to run as the money needed for run-off election is saved
  2. It is simple to operate.
  3. It produces clear winner in the election
  4. It discourages bribery and corruption that accompanies run-off or electoral college election
  5. It produces clear working majority for one party in a legislature and this can make for state government.


Demerits of Plurality System

  1. This system may encourage rigging in order to secure highest number of votes.
  2. Minor parties are usually under represented party in government.
  3. It may enthrone a government i.e not popular
  4. It does not produce result that reflects the wishes of the majority.
  5. Number of seats won by a political party may not reflect the volumes of votes cast.


Merits of Absolute Majority

  1. It is more democratic than plurality system for it is based on Majority votes
  2. It does not waste surplus votes
  3. Only candidate with majority number of votes are elected.
  4. It encourages active participation in politics.
  5. It is the popular choice of the people

Demerits of Absolute Majority

  1. It encourages Formation of many political parties and fragmentation of the society.
  2. It is very expensive to operate and it is time consuming coupled with energy.
  3. It is difficult to operate in a society where majority are illiterates.
  4. It is difficult to ascertain election result in this system.

Continuous distribution of votes may lead to electoral malpractices



Week: Five

Class: SS II

Lesson Title: Electoral Commission

Sub-lesson: Role of various Electoral officers

Ref. Books: R. E Aiyede et. al. Melrose Government for SS 2

Resource Material:Textbook, Chart, Internet e.t.c

Lesson Objectives:  By the end of the lesson, the students should be able to

  1. Define and state the composition of Electoral commission
  2. Identify the functions of Electoral commission
  • Mention the roles of various electoral officers

Building materials: The students already had knowledge about election



An electoral commission is the body charged with the responsibility of conducting and organizing a free and fair elections in a country.  It was called different names at different times in Nigeria.  It was tagged Federal Electoral Commission (FEDECO) 1963-1983 and National Electoral Commission (NEC) 1987-1993 and National Electoral Commission of Nigeria (NECON) 1996-1998.


From 2005 the body is called Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC). At the state level, it is called State Independent Electoral Commission (SIEC).

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  1. Chairman: He and his commission formulate policies that affect and supervise elections throughout the country.
  2. Secretary: Maintains the secretariat of the commission, controls personnel and ensures that all electoral regulations are observed in the appointment and conduct of all supporting officers.  He or She is responsible to the chairman.
  3. Electoral Officers: They distribute materials to polling officers and supervise the conduct of election in their areas.
  4. Returning Officer: He or she conducts the vote cast and pronounce the results.
  5. Polling Orderlies: They supervise the actual casting of votes at polling stations to ensure that votes are allowed to vote without molestation.
  6. Party Agents: all the polling station, they ensure that the interests of their respective parties are not jeopardized.



  1. Delimitation of constituency
  2. Registration of Political parties
  3. Recruitment and Training
  4. Provision of Electoral Materials
  5. Political education.
  6. Security at the polling station
  7. Registration of eligible voters.



1.What should be the roles of INEC in Nigeria to ensure a free and fair election?

2.What are the condition necessary for the conduct of free and fair election in Nigeria?



  1. Electoral officer: He or she is in charge of the conduct of elections in a local government area. Other adhoc or part time officials report to him or her.  The electoral officer is usually a permanent staff of the commission.
  2. Presiding Officer: He or She is the actual officer that conducts the election in the polling station where he or she is in charge. He or she ensures that the proceedings go on normally at the centre and orders the arrest of any individual who is to disrupt the exercise.
  3. Polling Agents: They ensure that the interests of their respective parties are not jeopardized. They are party agents.
  4. Poll clerk: He or she is next in command to the presiding officer at the polling centre.  The poll clerk assists in election duties and ensures orderliness in the station.



Subject: Government

Class: SS2

Topic: Public Opinion

Sub-topic: Measurement of Public opinion


Lesson objectives: By the end of the lesson, the students should be able to:

  1. Define and state the features of Public Opinion
  2. Mention the formation and measurement of Public opinion
  • Identify the importance/merits of Public opinion
  1. Outline the demerits of public opinion.


Building Materials press cuttings, internet, flash card and Text book



Public Opinion is the belief, values and attitude which are commonly held and expressed by the majority of people on a given public issue.


Features of Public Opinion

  1. It is not static but an ever changing social expression
  2. Public issues are mostly discussed in public opinion
  • It is the views of individual in the state


Formation of Public Opinion

  1. Individuals influence
  2. Party’s manifesto
  3. Sentimental and sugar-coated speeches of politicians
  4. Mass media


Measurements of public opinion

  1. General election
  2. Opinion polls
  3. Channels of communication
  4. Speeches of leaders


Importance/merits of Public Opinion

  1. To be watchful
  2. Support of the people
  3. Checking the excesses of government
  4. Needs of the people
  5. Good policies


Demerits of Public Opinion

  1. It may give wrong picture
  2. It may not represent general opinion
  3. It can be manipulated
  4. Not always reliable
  5. Views expressed by a cross-section of the society cannot be adequate


Lesson Review

1a. what is Public Opinion

  1. What are the features of Public Opinion
  2. How can public opinion be measured.




Subject: Government

Class: SS 2

Topic: Public Corporation

Sub-Topic: Problems of Public Corporations

Lesson Objectives: By the end of the lesson, the students should be able to

  1. Define public corporations
  2. State the reasons for the establishment of Public corporations
  • List the problems confronting public corporations
  1. Explain the control of public corporations



A public corporation may be defined as a business entity, owned, managed and financed with tax payers money by government of a country with the main motive of not making profit but to render essential services to the public.  PHCN, Water Corporation, Nigerian Airways, Nigerian Ports Authority are example of Public corporations.



  1. Huge Capital Outlay is involved in the establishment of Public corporation.  Hence, the need for involvement.
  2. Provision of essential services by the government
  3. Prevention of exploitation by private enterprises.
  4. For security purposes:

Government of a country establishes and owns public corporations like Airports, Seaports, Minting etc in order to monitor its activities.

  1. It served as an avenue for employment generation for the citizens.



  1. Frequent government/Political interference in the administration of Public corporations which result in gross inefficiency
  2. Favouritism in the appointment of general managers and members of Board of Directors often lead to enthronement of mediocrity rather than meritocracy.
  • Political victimization of officials of public corporations
  1. Ethnicity and sectionalism hamper the effective performance of public corporations.
  2. Non-challant attitude of workers of Public corporations as nobody’s business makes it grossly ineffective.


  1. Parliamentary Control

The Parliament is given some powers by the acts establishing it to scrutinize their accounts, auditor’s report brought before the House during question time.

  1. Judicial Control: As a legal entity which can be sue and sued, a public corporation can be dragged to court if it fails to act within the confine of the law establishing it and its action declared ultra vires.
  2. Ministerial Control: Ministers that are accountable to the parliament are given extensive power in public i.e appointment and dismissal of Board of Directors.
  3. Public Control: Members of the Public that consume goods and services of the public corporations exercise some form of control through criticism leveled against them.


Differences between a Public Corporation and the Civil Service

  1. A public corporation is managed by members of board of Directors while the civil service or a ministry is managed by a Minister advised by the Director.  General (Permanent Secretary)
  2. A chairman acts as the political head of a Public corporation while a Minister is the political head of a Ministry.
  3. Employees of a public corporation are called public servants that of a civil service are known as civil servants.
  4. Workers of a Public corporation are appointed by the Board of Directors, that of a government department are employed by the public service commission.
  5. A public corporation does not pay its revenue into the consolidated fund; a Ministry pays into the fund.


Lesson Review

1a. Define Public Corporation

  1. Account for the reasons of establishing public corporations



The civil service is a body or a department in the executive arm of the government responsible for the execution of the policies and programmes of the government



  1. Permanence
  2. They are politically neutral
  3. Anonymity: The civil service are anonymous, they are not to speak to the press unless authorized by the minister
  4. Impartiality
  5. Bureaucratic red: Tapism i.e. following the rules and regulations strictly
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  1. The administrative class: This is the highest grade of civil servants in the civil service. These are directors General or permanent secretary’s deputy and assistant director’s General Principal Officers etc. advising the ministers on policy formulation. They are manly university graduates
  2. The executive class: This class includes the high executive, senior executive officers, executive officers etc. they are holders of first degree, professional diplomas etc. they are responsible for the day to day running of government policies
  3. The professional class: They are meant to handle technical or specialized work. They include engineers, accountants, lawyers doctors etc.
  4. The clerical class: This class of workers include: typist, office clerks, clerical assistants etc. they are GCE holders
  5. Messengerial class: These are drivers, messengers that drive official cars and deliver official massager



  1. Policy formulation
  2. Advisory role to the government
  3. Contributor in law-making process
  4. Budget preparation
  5. Record and document keeping



  1. Political interference
  2. Ethnicity
  3. Bribery and corruption
  4. Red-tapism
  5. Poor conditions of service



  1. Legislative control
  2. Public service commission control
  3. Public complaints commission
  4. Press control
  5. Judicial control



  1. What is anonymity?

(b) Examine the structure of the civil service

  1. What are the functions of the civil service?





Subject: Government

Class: SS2

Topic: Local Government

Sub-topic: Problems of local government



A local government may be defined as government at the local level established by law to perform specific functions within defined areas



  1. To bring government nearer to the people at the grassroots
  2. To give the people in the rural area sense of belonging by ensuring their participation in deciding matters affecting them
  3. To allay feelings of insecurity and fears of ethnic domination
  4. To avoid too much concentration of power in one authority
  5. To serve as a link between the people at the grassroots and the central government.



  1. Provision and maintenance of markets
  2. Construction of feeder roads and as well maintenance, streets drains etc.
  3. Issuance of licenses-bicycles dogs and vehicles television etc.
  4. Registration births, deaths and marriages
  5. Naming of streets.



  1. Statutory allocation from federal government
  2. Grants from state government
  3. Fines from offenders of bye-laws
  4. Commercial ventures
  5. Tenement rates



  1. Inadequate funds
  2. Shortage of trained personnel
  3. Bribery and corruption
  4. Favoritism and nepotism
  5. Political inter faience from state government



  1. How would you proffer solution to the problems of local government in Nigeria
  2. What are the sources of local government revenue


Subject: Government

Class: SS2

Topic: Pre-colonial political system in Yoruba land


At the apex of the empire was the alaafin. He ruled according to the advice of the council of oyomes; and as well the guidance of the unwritten constitution of the empire which operates principle of checks and balances. He is also assisted by saamu, Agbaakin, Abese, Akiniku in handling judicial and constitutional matters



The second organ of the government of old oyo empire was the council of oyomesi members of the council of oyomesi were the king makers.

The head of oyomesi in the Basho rum was also the prime minister of the empire. It was also the constitutional duty of the council to remove any stibboru king that acted unconstitunally or ultra-vires by asking the king to open a calabash with parrots egg inside in which he is expected to cmmit suicide



The ogbomi was the third organ of government of old oyo empire. The ogboni was a secret society headed by Oluwo. It is their primary function to clack the excesses of the oyomesi, such as the rejection of an Alafin. They also served as check on ambitions Basho run.



Aare-ona-kakanfo the supreme generalissimo of the empire and headed the army of the kingdom. He is to defend the territorial integrity of the empire. If he suffers any defeat he is expected to commit suicide nevertheless, Afonja chose to go into exile in place of suicide



We also have the activities of the ilaris-male castrated eunuchs that are incharge of the royal brides.



Governor that acted as Asoju oba and as well collected tribute from vassal, states for the king

Iwareta is incharge of the palace otun-efa head of the deity of sango; ona-efa he headed the empire’s judiciary; osi- efa he took charge of the finances of the empire etc.



  1. Account for the principle of checks and balances in the empire
  2. Write short note on Alaafin, Ilaris, oyomesi or Aare-ona-Kakanfo


Subject: Government

Class: SS2

Topic: Pre-colonial political system in Hausa/Fulani emirate

Following the jihad war of 1804, led by Uthman Dan Fodio, erased the domination of Hausa domination of the region to be repaced by the Fulani emirate council.


Under the control of emirs of Guwandu and Sokoto that in turn appoint other emirs and divided the region into two sections-eastern and western sections.


The Emir were the political administrative and spiritual leaders of their people and rule according to the dictate of the Glorious Qur’an other officials that served as an advisory council to the emir are.


  • Waziri: The most senior official that acted as the prime minister
  • Madawaki: The commander of the army
  • Galadima: The administrator of the capital
  • Sarkin Fada: The head of palace workers
  • Dogari: Head of the police
  • Maaji: The officer in charge of the treasury
  • Sarlan ruwa: Water resources and fishing official
  • Sarkin pawa: Officer-in-charge of the butchers
  • Yenima: Officer in charge of the prisons.


Other sources of revenue include:

Jangali: livestock or animal tax

Jizier: Land rents

Zakat: It is a tax on movable property to cater for the poor, the needy, orphans and widows



  1. What are the roles of traditional rulers during pre-colonial administration in Nigeria?
  2. Compare the Hausa and Igbo pre colonial administration in Nigeria


Hope you got what you visited this page for? The above is the lesson note for Government for SS2 class. However, you can download the free PDF file for record purposes.

If you have any questions as regards Government lesson note For SS2 class, kindly send them to us via the comment section below and we shall respond accordingly as usual.








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