Economics lesson note for SS2 First Term is now available for free. The State and Federal Ministry of Education has recommended unified lesson notes for all secondary schools in Nigeria, in other words, all private secondary schools in Nigeria must operate with the same lesson notes based on the scheme of work for Economics.
Economics lesson note for SS2 First Term has been provided in detail here on schoolings.org
For prospective school owners, teachers, and assistant teachers, Economics lesson note is defined as a guideline that defines the contents and structure of Economics as a subject offered at SS level. The lesson note for Economics for SS stage maps out in clear terms, how the topics and subtopics for a particular subject, group works and practical, discussions and assessment strategies, tests, and homework ought to be structured in order to fit in perfectly, the approved academic activities for the session.
To further emphasize the importance of this document, the curriculum for Economics spells out the complete guide on all academic subjects in theory and practical. It is used to ensure that the learning purposes, aims, and objectives of the subject meant for that class are successfully achieved.
Economics Lesson note for SS2 carries the same aims and objectives but might be portrayed differently based on how it is written or based on how you structure your lesson note. Check how to write lesson notes as this would help make yours unique.
The SS2 Economics lesson note provided here is in line with the current scheme of work hence, would go a long way in not just helping the teachers in carefully breaking down the subject, topics, and subtopics but also, devising more practical ways of achieving the aim and objective of the subject.
The sudden increase in the search for SS2 Economics lesson note for First Term is expected because every term, tutors are in need of a robust lesson note that carries all topics in the curriculum as this would go a long way in preparing students for the West African Secondary Examination.
This post is quite a lengthy one as it provides in full detail, the government-approved lesson note for all topics and sub-topics in Economics as a subject offered in SS2.
Please note that Economics lesson note for SS2 provided here for First Term is approved by the Ministry of Education based on the scheme of work.
I made it free for tutors, parents, guardians, and students who want to read ahead of what is being taught in class.
SS2 Economics Lesson Note (First Term) 2023
ECONOMICS LESSON PLAN FOR SSS 2 FIRST TERM
SCHEME OF WORK
|1||Basic tools for Economics Analysis; measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode, using grouped data)|
|2||Measures of dispersion; range, variance, mean deviation, standard deviation|
|3||Theory of consumer behavior; concept of utility (Tu, Au, & Mu(, law of diminishing marginal utility|
|4||Demand and supply; change in quantity demanded, Demand and supply; change in quantity supplied, change in supply, effects of changes in demand and supply on equilibrium price and quantity.|
|5||Elasticity of supply; meaning, types and measurement of elasticity of supply. (Graphical illustration), importance of elasticity of supply to consumers, producers and government.|
|6||Elasticity of Demand; meaning, types and measurement of elasticity of demand. (Graphical illustration), importance of elasticity of demand to consumers, producers and government.|
|7||Income elasticity of demand; definition, types (positive and negative), measurement of Income elasticity of demand|
|8||Cross elasticity of demand, definition, measurement of cross elasticity of demand|
|9||Price control / legislation; meaning, types (minimum and maximum)|
|10||Rationing and hoarding; meaning of Rationing and hoarding, effects of Rationing and hoarding, black markets and its effects.|
TOPICS: MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY
The arithmetic mean, also popularly referred to as the “mean” is the average of a series of figures or values. The arithmetic mean can also be prepared for grouped data. In this case, the class mark (mid-point) of the individual class interical is used for the X – column
Formula used is
Calculate the mean of the following marks scored by students in an econo
20, 12, 18.
Use a class interval of 0-9, 10-19, 20-29, e.t.c.
Frequency table for marks scored by students in Economics Examination
|Scores (grouping)||Class marks (X)||Tally||Frequency (F)||FX|
The median is defined as an average, which is the middle value when figures are arranged in order of magnitude.
When the items are large, it may be necessary to use other methods other than arranging in order of magnitude to calculate the median. This will require that a frequency table be prepared.
Hence, from a frequency distribution, the median is calculated thus;
The median is defined as an average, which is the middle value when figures are arranged in order of magnitude.
When the items are large, it may be necessary to use other methods other than arranging in order of magnitude to calculate the median.
This will require that a frequency table be prepared.
Hence, from a frequency distribution the median is calculated this;
th Member for odd number of items i.e N is odd
Median = th + th
2Member for even number of items i.e N is even. Where N is the summation of all the frequency and this is the terminal cumulative frequency.
Use the information in the table: Calculate the median age of ssII students
Age Distribution of SSII Students
Cumulative frequency for age Distribution of SSII Students
Age Distribution of SSII Students
|No of students|
Median age =th = = 26th number in CF.
The data in table represents the marks scored by Economics students in NECO examination. Calculate the median score.
Marks scored by Economics students in
Cumulative frequency of table for Marks scored by Economics students in NECO Examination
From the table, there are 44 members as indicated by the terminal (last) cumulative frequency. Since this 44 is even, the median score will be;
= + th
Median score = th + th
The 22nd member is 30 marks
The 23rd member is 30 marks
Median score = = 30 marks
Median score = 30
Mode for Grouped Data
For a grouped data the formula is; x = Li + x c
= Frequency of the modal class minus frequency of the class immediately before the modal class
= Frequency of the modal class minus frequency of the class immediately after the modal class
Li = Lower class boundary of modal class
C= size of modal class interval.
The table below shows the distribution of the weight of students in a certain school.
Obtain the modal of the weight.
Class Boundary Frequency
39.5 – 44.5 4
44.5 – 49.5 11
49.5 – 54.5 15
54.5 – 59.5 9
59.5 – 64.5 3
64.5 – 69.5 8
From the table, the modal class has frequency of 15. The class boundaries are 49.5 -54.5. Therefore, the lower boundary of the modal class is 15, while the frequency is before and after it are 11 and 9 respectively.
Li = 49.5
= 15 – 11 = 4
= 15 – 9 = 6
C = 44.5 – 39.5 = 5
Mode = Li + x c
= 49.5 + x 5
= 49. 5 + (0.4) 5
= 49.5 + 2
- State the modal class
- Estimate the mode of the distribution, correct to one decimal place
- The frequency table below represents the number of oranges picked by 20 students.
Calculate the median of the table.
MEASURES OF DISPERSION
The measures of dispersion is also called measure of variation.
The range is the simplest and most straight forward measure of dispersion. It is the difference between the maximum values in the date.
Find the range in the table below
The maximum (highest) score = 30
The minimum (lowest) score = 6
Calculate the mean deviation for the set of data in table below
Age of SS2 students that won scholarship
Age of SS2 students that won scholarship
|20||276||f = (X-) = 69.2|
Mean = = = 13.8
VARIANCE AND STANDARD DEVIATION
Example: The marks scored by Economics Students in their NECO Examination are presented in the table below. Calculate the variance and standard deviation.
|No of students (frequency)||8||6||12||18||6||4|
X = = = 33.7
- Variance = = = = 201.1
- Standard Deviation = =
Marks scored by some students in an economics test are;
6 9 5 7 6 7 5 8 9 5
8 9 5 7 5 8 7 8 6 5
6 5 7 6 9 9 7 8 8 7
8 9 8 5 8 9 5 6 9 7
8 5 6 9 8 6 7 6 9 5
- Find the range of the grouped frequency table below.
The Theory of Consumer Behavior
The theory of consumer behavior is primarily concerned with how the consumer or household tries to satisfy his or her wants by dividing his or her limited amount of income between the various commodities that gives him or her the amount of satisfaction.
The Concepts of Utility
The term utility refers to the amount of satisfaction derived from the consumption of a commodity at a particular time.
Types of Utility
- Form Utility: This is the transformation of commodity from the consumption of a commodity at a particular time.
- Place Utility: Place utility involves the changing of location of a commodity from one geographical area where it has little utility to another area where its utility is higher.
- Time Utility: This is the ability of a commodity or service to satisfy a consumer’s wants at a particular time.
Concepts of total utility, marginal utility and average utility
- Total Utility: this refers to the total amount of satisfaction derived from all the units of a commodity consumed at a particular time.
units of commodity consumed
Total Utility Curve
- Marginal Utility: This refers to the additional satisfaction derived by consuming an extra unit of a commodity.
MU = = =
Where = Change in total utility
= Change in quantity
= New level of total utility
= Old Level of total utility
= New level of quantity
= Old level of quantity
0 Mu Units of commodity consumed
- Average Utility: this is the amount of satisfaction derived by a consumer per unit of a commodity consumed.
= Utility AU
0 Units of Commodity consumed
Relationship between total utility and marginal utility schedule of Total, marginal and average utility.
|Quantity of Goods consumed||Total Utility||Marginal Utility||Average Utility|
Both marginal utility and total utility are related
When a consumer increases consumption of a commodity total utility rises to a maximum and then decline. On the other hand, the marginal utility of any commodity decreases as more is consumed. When total utility increases to a maximum point then marginal utility is zero.
As total utility continued to decrease, marginal utility becomes negative. The table shows the relationship between both concepts.
At quantity seven, total utility is zero. When total utility decrease at 8th unit, MU is negative.
The fact that total utility increases at a decreasing rate is shown by the decreasing steps of marginal utility curve
5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Units of Total Marginal Utility
Schedule of Total and Marginal Utility
The Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility
The law of diminishing marginal utility states that the amount of satisfaction (or utility) an individual derives as his consumption of that commodity increases as a result of continuous consumption of the same commodity.
Utility Maximization for one product
For one product, a consumer maximizes utility when the marginal utility of that commodity equals the price of the commodity. This is represented mathematically thus, MUx = Px
Utility maximization of many products
In case of many products the consumer will be at equilibrium where there is equality of the ratio of the marginal utility of the individual commodity to their twice.
The utility maximization concept requires that the ration of marginal utilities of the last units of the commodities should be equal to the ration of prices.
Derivation of demand curve from utility theory
Derivation of demand is based on the law of diminishing marginal utility. Marginal utility is key concept underlying demand.
It slopes downward from left to right like the demand curve.
A consumer’s demand for any product is a function of marginal utility. Marginal utility slopes that is more of a commodity is consumed, the satisfaction derived declines.
Derivation of Demand curve from marginal utility curve.
40 Marginal Utility Curves
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
40 Demand Curve
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x
CHANGE IN QUANTITY DEMANDED
A change in quantity demanded is a movement along a/single demand curve.
The main determinant of a change in the quantity of a commodity demanded is the price of the commodity under consideration. The quantity of a commodity demanded changes with price.
More is purchased at a lower price than at a higher price.
A change in the quantity demanded is of two types.
- Increase in the quantity demanded: There is an increase in the quantity demanded if the quantity purchased increases as a result of a decrease in the price of the commodity.
0 30 45 Quantity demanded
Increase in the quantity demanded
- Decrease in the quantity demanded: There is a decrease in the quantity demanded if the quantity of the commodity purchase decreases as a result of an increase in price.
Decrease in the quantity demanded
0 20 50 Quantity demanded
Changes in Demand or Shifts in Demand curve
This is a complete shift of demand curve to the right or left.
There is a change in demand of the demand curve shifts to an entirely new position.
This is a completely new demand Schedule and demand curve, showing that at the old price, more or less of the commodity would be purchased.
A shift or change in demand is determined by other factors affecting demand except the price of the commodity e.g. change in taste and fashion, changes in population size, etc.
A change in demand is of two types:
(a) Increase in Demand: If there is an increase in demand, the demand curve will shift to the right indicating that at the old price more of the commodity will be purchased.
0 D0 D1
35 75 Quantity demanded
Rightward shift (Increase in Demand)
(b) Decrease in Demand: if there is a decrease in demand, the demand curve will shift to the left, showing that at the old price less of the commodity is being purchased.
N60 Leftward shift (decrease) in demand
0 D1 D0
40 65 Quantity demanded
Change in Quantity supplied.
A change in the quantity supplied of a commodity means a movement along a particular supply curve.
If is determined by the price of the commodity.
A change in quantity supplied is of two types;
- Decrease in the quantity supplied: The quantity supplied decreases as a result of a decrease in the price of the commodity.
50 100 Quantity supplied
Decrease in the quantity supplied
- Increase in Quantity supplied: With an increase in the quantity supplied, the quantity offered for sale increase as a result of an increase in the price of the commodity.
0 40 80 Quantity supplied
Increase in the quantity supplied.
SHIFT OR CHANGE IN SUPPLY
A Change in supply brings about a shift in the supply curve either to the right or to the left.
With change in supply, the supply curve shifts to an entirely new position indicating that at each of the old prices more or less of the commodity will be supplied. It is determined by the factors affecting supply other than the price of the commodity.
A change in supply is also of two types;
- Decrease in supply: With a decrease in supply, the supply curve will shift to the left, showing that at each of the old prices, less of the commodity will be supplied.
0 90 120 Quantity supplied
Leftward shift (decrease) in supply
- Increase in Supply: With an increase in supply the supply curve shifts to the right indicating that at each of the former prices, more of the commodity will be supplied.
30 80 Quantity supplied
Rightward Shift (Increase) in supply
- Discuss the factors that should innovate a producer to supply more of a commodity.
- Differentiate with the aid of diagram between change in supply and change in quantity supplied.
Elasticity of Demand
Elasticity of demand can be defined as the degree of responsiveness of quantity demanded to little changes in the price of a commodity, or to change in the income or taste of the consumer, or to change in the prices of other commodities.
Price Elasticity of Demand
Price elasticity of demand refers to the degree of responsiveness of demand to little changes in prices of goods and services.
Types of Price Elasticity
- Elastic demand: Demand is elastic if a little change in price brings about a greater change in the quantity of a commodity demanded.
E > 1
0 Q2 Q1
Elastic or fairly Elastic Demand curve.
- Inelastic Demand: Demand is inelastic if a larger change in price of commodities leads to little or no change in the quantity demanded.
E > 1
0 Q1 Q2 Quantity demanded
- Unity or Unitary Elasticity of Demand: Demand is unitary if a change in price leads to an equal change in the quantity of goods demanded
P1 E = 1
Q1 Q2 Quantity demanded
Unity or Unitary Elastic Demand.
- Perfectly Elastic Demand: In this curve any slight increase in price will make consumers stop buying the commodity at all, while a slight decrease in price will make the consumers purchase all the quantity of that commodity available.
P E = Infinity D
0 Quantity demanded
Perfectly Elastic demand
- Perfectly Inelastic Demand: Demand is said to be perfectly inelastic of a change in price has no effect on the quantity of goods demanded.
0 Q Quantity demanded.
Perfectly Inelastic Demand
Measurement of elasticity of Demand
Elasticity of demand can be measured or determined by calculating the elasticity of demand co-efficient. The formula used in calculating the elasticity of demand is;
Co-efficient of price elasticity of demand =
If the co-efficient is more than 1, demand is elastic
If the co-efficient is less than 1, demand is inelastic
If the co-efficient is 1, elasticity of demand is unitary.
Given the figure below;
Price of commodity A in January = N5.00
Price of commodity A in February = N7. 00
Quantity of A bought in January = 20kg
Quantity of A bought in February = 16kg
- Percentage change in quantity bought (%)
- Co-efficient of price elasticity of demand
- From your answer, is the demand elastic or inelastic.
- How do you know this?
- Percentage change in quantity demanded = x = x = 20%
- Percentage change in price x = x = x =40%
iii. Co-efficient of price elasticity E.D = = = or 0.5 E.D = 0.5
b.i. Demand is inelastic
- 0.5 is less than one. Hence, the co-efficient of price elasticity of demand is inelastic.
Given the following information; price of bread in November = N10
Price of bread in December = N14
Quantity bought in November N40
Quantity bought in December = N36
- Calculate percentage change in price
- Calculate percentage on quantity bought
- Calculate the co-efficient of price elasticity of demand.
- What type of demand elasticity is this?
- How did you know this?
WEEK 6 Elasticity of supply
Elasticity of supply measures the degree of responsiveness of the quantity of a commodity offered for sale to a little change in the price of that commodity or to a change in the cost of production.
Types of Elasticity of Supply
- Elastic Supply: Supply is elastic if a little change in the price of a commodity or cost of production brings about a more than proportional change in the quantity supplied.
0 Q2 Q1 Quantity supplied
Fairly Elastic supply curve
- Inelastic Supply: Supply is inelastic if a little change in the price or the cost of production brings about a less than the proportional change in the quantity of the commodity supplied.
E < 1
Fairly inelastic supply curve
- Unitary Elastic Supply: Elasticity of supply is unitary (or unity) if a change in price or cost of production brings about a proportional change in the quantity of the commodity sold.
Unitary Elastic Supply curve
- Perfectly Elastic supply or Infinitely Elastic Supply: a little increase in the price of the commodity would result in the supply of all the stock of that commodity available and vice versa.
P s E =
0 Quantity supplied
Perfectly Elastic supply curve
- Perfectly Inelastic Supply: This indicates that changes in price do not bring any change in the quantity supplied.
E = 0
0 Q Quantity supplied
Perfectly Inelastic supply curve.
Measurement of Elasticity of Supply
The elasticity of supply can be determined or measured by calculating the co-efficient of the elasticity of supply.
Co-efficient of price elasticity of supply = Negative signs are ignored.
|Price (N)||Quantity supplied|
- Calculate co-efficient of elasticity of supply
- What type of supply is this?
- How do you know?
Change in quantity supplied
x = x
= x = 20%
Change in price.
x = x = 50%
- Co-efficient of elasticity of supply = = = 0.40
- Inelastic supply
- Supply is inelastic because the co-efficient of elasticity of supply is less than 1
MEASUREMENT OF ELASTICITY OF DEMAND
Elasticity of demand can be measured or determined by calculating the elasticity of demand co-efficient. The co-efficient of elasticity of demand can be calculated using the following formulae.
- Co – efficient of price elasticity demand = %change in quantity demand /% change in price.
- C o-efficient of income elasticity of demand = %change in quantity demand /% change in income.
- Co-efficient of cross elasticity of demand = %change in quantity of commodity X demanded /% change in price of commodity.
WEEK 7 INCOME ELASTICITY OF DEMAND
Income elasticity of demand refers to the degree of responsiveness of demand to changes in income of consumers. It measures how changes in income of consumers will affect the quantity of commodities demanded by such consumers. Income elasticity of demand is negative for inferior goods sine an increase in income will leads to a decreased demand for them. Income elasticity of demand is measured thus, co-efficient of income elasticity of demand = %change in quantity demand /% change in income.
TYPES OF INCOME ELASTICITY OF DEMAND
- Positive income Elasticity of demand. Income elasticity is said to be positive if an increase in income of consumers leads to increase in the quantity demand. This applies to normal commodities.
- Negative income Elasticity of Demand: if an increase in income of consumers leads to decrease in quantity of goods and services demand, income elasticity is said to be negative. In such a situation, demand falls as income of consumers rises. This applicable to inferior goods
Example: a weekly income of a clerk was increased from #100 to #125 as a result of his promotion in the office. He is able to purchase 300 loaves of bread instead of 200 per week. (1) Calculate the co-efficient of his income elasticity of demand. (2) is the demand elastic? (3) what kind of food is bread to the consumers?
Income Quantity demand
Old New Old (leaves) New (leaves)
100 125 200 300
- Percentage change in quantity demand = New Qd – Old /old Qd X 100
=300 – 200 X 100
- Percentage changes in income = new income – old income X 100
= 125 – 100 X 100
Income elasticity = % Qd/% income
The co-efficient of income elasticity = 2
- The co-efficient of elasticity of demand is elastic. It is greater than 1
- The kind of food bread is to the consumers in normal good, because as the income increase, his demand for bread also increases thus, Indicating a positive type of income elasticity of demand.
CROSS ELASTICITY OF DEMAND
Cross elasticity of demand refers to the degree of responsiveness of demand for a commodity to change in the price of another commodity. In other words, cross elasticity of demands refers to the proportionate change in the quantity of goods (X) demand over the proportionate change in the price of another goods(Y) demanded, that as it measures how changes in the price of a commodity will affect the demand of another commodity. Cross elasticity of demand applies mainly if this is an increase in goods that have close substitutes as well as complementary goods. For example, demand for Elephant/ detergent will increase if there is an increase in the price of OMO.
MEASUREMENT OF CROSS ELASTICITY OF DEMAND
Cross elasticity of demand can be measured or calculated by using the co-efficient of cross elasticity of demand. Thus, co-efficient of cross elasticity of demand=
Percentage change in quantity demand of commodity X /percentage change in price of commodity Y
Income elasticity = % QX/% PY
Example: the table below shows the response of quantity demanded of changes in prices of two
pairs of commodities.
Commodity changes in price(#) commodity changes in quantity(kg)
Original price new price original quaty. New quanty.
Maltina 50 80 maltonic 200 300
Close up 50 60 maclean 120 150
- Calculate the cross elasticity demand (i) maltaina and ,maltonic (ii) close up and maclean
- Are their elasticity elastic or inelastic and state your reasons
- Cross elasticity of demand for maltina and maltonic
Let X = maltonic, y = maltina
Percentage change in quantity demand of maltonic (X) = New Qd – OriginalQd 100/original Qd
300 – 200 X 100
= 100 100/200
- Percentage change in price of maltina = New price – Original price X 100 /original price
= 80 – 50 X 100 / 50
- Cross elasticity of maltonic and matltina = 50%/60%
- Crosselasticity of demand for maclean and close up
Let X = maclean Y = close up
- % change in quantity demand for maclean X = New Qd – Original Qd 100/original Qd
150 – 120 X 100/120
- Percentage change in price of maltina = New price – Original price X 100 /original price
60 – 50 X 100/50
Cross elasticity of demand for maclean and close up = 25%/20%
- The cross elasticity for maltina and maltonic is inelastic because the elasticity, which is 0.83, is less than 1
- The cross elasticity for malcean and close up is elastic because the elasticity which is 1.25, is greater than 1
Price legislation, also known as price control policy, refers to how the government or its agency fixes the price of essential commodities.
Price control was carried out in Nigeria by the price control board.
Types of Price Control Policy
- Minimum Price Control Policy
- Maximum Price Control Policy
In economics, hoarding is the practice of obtaining and holding scarce resources, possibly so that they can be sold to customers for profit.
Under capitalist theory, if this is done so that the resource can be transferred to the customer or improved upon, then it is a standard business practice (e.g. buying up a bunch of wood to turn into a house); however, if the sole intent is to hold an otherwise unavailable resource it is considered hoarding.
Hoarding behavior may be a common response to fear, whether fear of imminent society-wide danger or simple fear of a shortage of some good. Civil unrest or natural disaster may lead people to collect foodstuffs, water, gasoline, and other essentials which they believe, rightly or wrongly, will soon be in short supply.
Economically speaking, hoarding occurs due to individuals obtaining and holding assets thought to be undervalued and build up reserves of it in hopes to profit or save money later. Examples include times when price controls were in effect as in the case of Germany after World War II, communist countries, or after natural disasters when goods are in such short supply that consumers stockpile (this is sometimes compounded by anti-price gouging laws which prevent the supply and demand curves from functioning). In these cases the hoarding disappears after the price controls are removed.
A feature of hoarding is that it leads to an inefficient distribution of scarce resources, making the scarcity even more of a problem. An example occurs in cities where parking is inadequate. In such a case, businesses may post signs indicating that their lot is for their employees and customers only, and all other vehicles will be towed. This prevents businesses from allowing their parking to overflow into neighboring lots when their capacity is exceeded. Thus, when the capacity is reached at one business, there may be no legal place to park, while there would have been, if hoarding had not occurred. If a single business posted those signs, it would, indeed, improve the parking situation at that business, as they could continue to park at adjacent businesses, while the others could not park in their lot.
Definition of ‘Rationing’
Rationing refers to an artificial control on the distribution of scarce resources, food items, industrial production, etc.
Definition: Rationing refers to an artificial control on the distribution of scarce resources, food items, industrial production, etc. In banking, credit rationing is a situation when banks limit the supply of loans to consumers. In economics, rationing refers to an artificial control of the supply and demand of commodities.
Description: Rationing is done to ensure the proper distribution of resources without any unwanted waste. Banks use credit rationing to control lending beyond the monetary base of the bank. Controlling the prices and demand and supply leads to availability of goods and services for every section of the society.
Hope you got what you visited this page for? The above is the lesson note for Economics for SS2 class. However, you can download the free PDF file for record purposes.
If you have any questions as regards Economics lesson note For SS2 class, kindly send them to us via the comment section below and we shall respond accordingly as usual.