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Agric Lesson Note for SS1 (First Term) 2023

Agric lesson note for SS1 First Term is now available for free. The State and Federal Ministry of Education has recommended unified lesson notes for all secondary schools in Nigeria, in other words, all private secondary schools in Nigeria must operate with the same lesson notes based on the scheme of work for Agric.

Agric lesson note for SS1  First Term has been provided in detail here on

Agric Lesson Note for SS1 (First Term) [year] 1

For prospective school owners, teachers, and assistant teachers, Agric lesson note is defined as a guideline that defines the contents and structure of Agric as a subject offered at SS level. The lesson note for Agric for SS stage maps out in clear terms, how the topics and subtopics for a particular subject, group works and practical, discussions and assessment strategies, tests, and homework ought to be structured in order to fit in perfectly, the approved academic activities for the session.

To further emphasize the importance of this document, the curriculum for Agric spells out the complete guide on all academic subjects in theory and practical. It is used to ensure that the learning purposes, aims, and objectives of the subject meant for that class are successfully achieved.

Agric Lesson note for SS1 carries the same aims and objectives but might be portrayed differently based on how it is written or based on how you structure your lesson note. Check how to write lesson notes as this would help make yours unique.

The SS1 Agric lesson note provided here is in line with the current scheme of work hence, would go a long way in not just helping the teachers in carefully breaking down the subject, topics, and subtopics but also, devising more practical ways of achieving the aim and objective of the subject.

The sudden increase in the search for SS1 Agric lesson note for First Term is expected because every term, tutors are in need of a robust lesson note that carries all topics in the curriculum as this would go a long way in preparing students for the West African Secondary Examination.

This post is quite a lengthy one as it provides in full detail, the Agric-approved lesson note for all topics and sub-topics in Agric as a subject offered in SS1.

Please note that Agric lesson note for SS1 provided here for First Term is approved by the Ministry of Education based on the scheme of work.

I made it free for tutors, parents, guardians, and students who want to read ahead of what is being taught in class.

SS1 Agric Lesson Note (First Term) 2023





1.Definition of agriculture

Meaning, scope and importance of agriculture

(a) and branches of agriculture

(b)Importance of agriculture science

2.Meaning differences between subsistence and commercial agriculture

3.Problems of agriculture development and possible solution

4.Roles of government and non-governmental organization in agricultural


(a)The roles of providing loans, credit and subsidies

5.Roles of science and technology in agricultural development

(a)Definition of science, meaning of technology and effect of science and

technology on farm tools and mechanics

6.Agro: Amid industry and relationship between agricultural industry

7.Agriculture laws and reforms of land tenure system in Nigeria

vHand uses decree of 1978 and implementation

vAgricultural development

8.Land and its uses

9&10. Meaning and important of agricultural ecology

vMeaning and components (Biotic, A biotic) autotrophies




Meaning, importance of agricultural science

The meaning of Agriculture

The term agriculture is derived from two latin word, ‘Ager’ and (vulture. Ager means feed culture means cultivation by the statement agriculture means feed cultivation.

However, this is not a complete definition of agriculture since, agriculture also as to do animal production.

Agriculture is simply defined as the production of crop and animal for man uses. In other words, agriculture is defined as the deliberate effort made by man to till soil, cultivate crops and rear animals for food and other purpose. It also involves the sales of produce from agriculture, because production is not complete until the produce get to the final consumer.


Importance of agriculture

Agriculture play important role in the development of all nation. It is stay of Nigeria economy and other development countries. The importance of agriculture:

1.Provision of food

i.It is through agriculture that man feed. Agriculture

ii.Provide food in form, maize, rice, yam, meat, milts eggs etc. for human consumption either in fresher or processed formed.

A Nations that can feed its population can same a lot of money for other goods and services that are not provided through agriculture

iii.As a result of self-sufficient in the provision of food to the population death burden on the population

2.Provision of material for clothing

i.Agriculture provides fiber and cotton for textile production

ii.It provides hide and skin for clothing, shoes, belts, cap, bags

iii.Wool from sheep and silk for clothing


3.Employment for the working population

i.Agriculture and other agro-based industry provide employment opportunities

for 60%-70% of the population

ii.Agriculture which developed into commercial lecture ensure the ability those

employedinit to produce food to feed the country and also for export


4.Source of foreign exchange

i.Through the export agricultural produce like cocoa, kola-nut, groundnut,

kenaf, kennel, farm produce like cotton etc. A Nation can earn foreign exchange

ii.Foreign exchange so earned can be used in torn to purchase good necessary for the improvement for team of agricultural


5.Generation of income of farmer

i.Souse of crops and crop product provide income for farmer

ii.Sales of animal and animal products also provide income for farmer


6.Provision of material shelter

i.Agriculture provides materials essential for building sranpous, doors, windows, roof, floor etc.

ii.Agriculture provides material required for furniture such as chair, table, beds, cabinets



7.Development of towns

i.Development occurs where commercial agriculture exist, as social amentias i.e.

electricity and pipe from water will be provided

ii.Good and workable road will be provided it may also result in the establishment

of agro-based industries in towns/villages


8.Provision of recreational and tourism

i.It leads to establishment of game reserves

ii.Agriculture can provide house for horse riding


9.Provision of market for industry goods

i.Agriculture provides market for industry produces such as machinery, chemicals,

fertilizers etc.

ii.It also provide storage and processing facilities for agriculture


10.Provision for materials for industry

i.Agriculture sup plays several industries with raw material for their continuous

existence. Industry which depends on agriculture for their raw materials are caused agro-based industry e.g. of agro based industry and the raw materials used sun industry are the beverage industry depends cocoa for the production of several food drinks such as bournvita, pronto, ova line

ii.Spinning, meaning and other textile industry depend directly in wool and cotton

for the production of clothing materials

iii.Tyre industry depends on natural rubber for the production of tyre and tubes for


iv.Sugar industry depends on agriculture for the production of sugar

v.Tobacco inductees depend on tobacco for the production of cigarette



1.What is Agriculture

2.Give two importance of Agriculture

3.State five Agro-based industry



Commercial and subsistence agriculture

Subsistence agriculture is defined as a type of agriculture which is concerned with the production of food by the farmer to keep himself and his family

Subsystem of agriculture, in other words is the system of agriculture whereby a farmer cultivate crops for use for himself and family


Characteristics of subsistence agriculture

vIt is mostly practiced by peasant farms

vIt involves small plot of land

vThere is no specialization

vIt employs unskilled labour

vThe returns or output are usually very low

vIt involves the use family labour

vIt produce only for the basic need of  his family

vThere is no surplus for sale

vLittle capital is involved

vEvery reliance is on natural rain fan

vIt produces food crops alone

vThere limited uses of agro- chemical e.g. insecticides and pesticide

vUnimproved varieties of crop and breeds of animals are used

vMixed cropping system is usually in subsistence agriculture.



Problems of subsistence agriculture

1.Family labour supply to unreliable: In the face of rural-urban migration of able

bodied man. It therefore results In the non-availably of farming labour especially the children to work on the farm

2.Crude tools are used: These of ten result in low use since the use of such tools

have their limit compare to the use of tractor

3.Fragmented of small farm land:This is major constrained as produce from such

farming food holding is usually very small

4.Illiteracy of the farmers: Labour use subsistence agriculture has little or no

formal education result in their inability to reading instruction to adopt modern farming techniques

5.No surplus for sale: This often keep the farmer permanently poor as he win not

be able to generate enough capital to expand the size of the farm

6.Inadequate capital for investment: This lead to small holding farming inputs

7.How level of specialization: The subsistent farmer is often involve unpracticed

of mixed-cropping as the against the production of a particular crop which could lead to specialization

8.Pest and diseases: Are not contrived-owing to his poured and illiteracy past and

diseases are contoured and this further lead to low yield

9.How return/yield: As a result of low capital investment illiteracy of the farmer

and small farm holding the yield or retunes from subsistent agriculture


Commercial Agriculture

It is defined as the type of agriculture which is concerned with the production food, animals and cash crops in large quintiles for sales


Characteristics of commercial agriculture

(1)Cropping system is usually practiced

(2)It involves huge investment of capital or money

(3)It involves the cultivation of large of hectares of land

(4)It also involves the use of hired labor

(5)Most operation of commercial agriculture are mechanized

(6)It employs the use of skilled labour

(7)Only rain farmers are engaged in commercial agriculture

(8)Improved varieties of crops and breeds of animals are used

(9)Irrigation system may be practiced

(10)Records are kept in commercial agriculture

(11)It uses agro chemical such as fertilizers, pesticides and insecties


Differences between subsistence agriculture and commercial agriculture

Subsistence Agriculture Commercial Agriculture

1 Small area of land is cultivated A large area of land is cultivated and mechanized

2 Produce is manly for farming consumption Produce is mainly for sale

3 Crude tools are implements are used Complex and modem tools and implements are used

4 Family/menial labour is usually employed Paids/stained labour

5 Yield and returns are low Yield or returns are high

6 It does not require any special It require special marketing strategies

7 It rewires little capital investing It requires huge capital interested

8 Pests and disease are not controlled Pests and disease are usually controlled

9 It require little or no farmer education to operate It requires special still and technical education

10 No need for storage and processing facilities Storage and processing farming and required

11 Mostly practiced by precision farmers mostly practices by very rich farmers

12 Usually have the environment free of pollution It may course environment pollution

13 Low environmental degradation High environmental degradation



1.What is subsistence farming?

2.What is commercial farming?

3.State five differences between subsistence and commercial farming

4.State five characteristics of commercial farming



Relationship between agriculture and industries

1.There is a position land wide range of relationship between agriculture and

industry this relationship include the following e.g.

(a)Agriculture provide market for industrial product as farm fertilizers

(b)Agriculture also provide food for industrial works

(c)Agriculture provide raw materials for such as cocoa, cotton, palm produce

ground not etc. for industry

(d)Agriculture development allows for a shift of factors of production like land,

labour, capital to the industries

(e)Both agriculture and industry compete for labour

(f)Rise in agriculture income due to efficient and economic factors. Combination

brings about development of industry

(g)Industries provide a large range of desirable goods that farmer want to buy

(h)Industries produce agro-chemicals and for agriculture uses examples are 3

pesticide, fertilizer, vaccines, Abiticides

(i)Industry provides storage facilities for agricultural produce e.g. milk, fruits,

vegetable, meat, fish etc.

(j)Industry provides also provides processing facilities such as grinders, millers, etc.

for agriculture

(k)Industry provide machineries and equipment for agriculture uses examples

include tractor, plough, cutlasses hoes etc.



1.State five relationship between industry and Agriculture

2.State five Agro-based industry in Nigeria

3.State five products of industry

4.State five raw material from Agriculture


WEEK 4&5


Many developmed countries in West Africa are faced with numerous problems as:

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1.In adequate land tenses system:

a.Increase in population reduces the size land

b.High population reduces the size of farm land increase in population has led to

increase in the various alter natives to which land can be used this again puts more pressure on available

c.The type of land demure system in west Africa discourages farmers from

acquiring land for large scale farming

  1. Reforestation and desert encroachment contribute to land

e.Soil erosion and mercury or swampy areas also contribute to lack of farm land



(i)Fertilizers and manure should be used to increase production of crops this

available land

(ii)Crop rotation should be practiced by farmers

(iii)The land used decree of 1978 should be fully implemented to Minimis the

problems of land termer

(iv)Farmers should firm co-operate for easy allocation of farm lands


2.Inadequate finance or credit facilities:

Most subsistence farmer are poor and do not have the finance to make the purchase of:

i.Land and agricultural tools is and machinery

ii.Improved seeds, fertilizers and other chemicals

iii.Livestock; livestock feeds and drugs

iv.Materials for construction of farm stead or house

v.Also farmers have no access to loans or credit facilities to expand farm land

vi.Farmers do not have the required collateral security to enable them to secure

loans from banks

vii.High interest-rate changed by banks at short repayable period presents

borrowing by farmers

viii.Farmers who get loans, at time divert such loans to other purposes such as

chieftaincy and marriage ceremonies



(i)Agricultural backs like Nigeria agricultural and co-operative Bank (N.A.C.B)

should make loans available to farmers

(ii)Banks should reduce their high in tersest rate to encourage borrowing

(iii)Farmers should firm co-operative societies for easy procurement of loan from

commercial backs

(iv)Collateral security should be in form of guarantee rather than in material firms,

like land and buildings


3.Poor transportation network

i.Presence of bad roads or total lack of 4 makes distribution of produce to market

very difficult, and this leads to wastage

ii.Some roads may be rendered useless during the rainy season

iii.The number of motor vehicles are in  adequate because of the high cost of

vehicles, machine ring and spare parts

iv.There is high cost of transportation due to bad roads and inadequate vehicles

and other means of transportation

v.Most farmer in rural areas are not linked to roads and tests eventually leads

wastage of good

vi.High cost of transportation increase farmers cost of production and produce


vii.In adequate divers fiction of means of transportation of agricultural products

e.g. in adequacy of the transportation of agricultural goods



(i)Construction of new feeder roads to open up the rural areas

(ii)Construction of water ways to link up the riverine areas

(iii)Construction of railways to connect rural areas to the urban centers

(iv)Provision of motor vehicles, boats and trains to facilitate the distribution of farm


(v)Reduction in transportation cost to make such affordable to the rural farmer

(vi)Regular supply at fuel

(vii)Reliabilitation of existing damaged roads

(viii)Availability of spare parts at affordable prices


4.Inadequate storage and processing facilities

(i)Lots of produce are wasted due to inadequate storage and processing facilities

(ii)Improper storage reduces the quantity and quality of farmer produce

(iii)Storage and processing facilities are expensive leading to high cost of produce

(iv)There is lack of technical know-how on food storage and processing

(v)Farmer produce are sold off at cheap rate leading to reduced income to the


(vi)Inadequate storage and processing faculties force farmers to produce just

enough for their family and discourage them from large scene farming

(vii)Storage facilities like silos, rhombus, cribs, barns, rafters, etc. are grossing in


(viii)Processing facilities like threshers, millers graters, coining and sealing machines

are also in adequate

(ix)It may lead to scarcity of produce



i.Storage facilities should be provided by the government a subsidized rates

ii.More people should be trained on the technology of food storage and


iii.Government should buy excess produce and store for future use

iv.Provision of silos in the rural areas for storage of grains by government

v.Farmers should be encouraged to construct cribs, barns, and rhombus for proper

storage of farm produce after harvesting

vi.Provision of cold stores for perishable produce and livestock products

vii.Provision of processing facilities such as corn mill, cassava grater, rice mill and oil

palm press to facilitate the processing of farm produce after harvesting so as to enhance storage

viii.Provision of storage chemicals such as fumigants

ix.Provision of loans/credit facilities to farmers


5.Inadequate farm inputs

I.Farm inputs like chemicals, facilities tools & implements are grossly inadequate

II.Available farm input are of in kenos quality outdated and crude

III.Most of the farm inputs are not produced in Nigeria, rather they are imported

IV.Farm inputs are expensive to purchase and maintain

V.Farm inputs even when they are available are not supplied to the farmers at the

high time



i.Farm input like fertilizer, pesticides, feeds, drugs etc. should be made available in adequate quantities to farmers

ii.Government should subsidies the cost of farm inputs

iii.Farm input should be supplied at the right time to farmers

iv.Local sourcing of these inputs should be encourage

Established of tractors hiring unit at affordable cost to

Establishment of seed services for the production and distribution of improved

seeds to farmers


6.Inadequate basic amenities

i.Lack of basic amenities like electricity, pipe borne water and proper health-care

makes able bodied men and youths migrate from rural to urban areas in search of non-existing jobs

ii.There is lack of electricity in many rural areas for farm operations

iii.Inadequate storage facilities for farm produce

iv.Poor processing facilities for farm produce

v.Inadequate provision of portable woler for domestic use

vi.There is shortage of water for irrigation purposes for all-season cropping

vii.Poor health care services reduces the productively of formers

viii.There is also lack of recreational facilities in rural areas



i.Provision of electricity in the rural areas

ii.Provision of potable and drinkable water

iii.Provision of health care centers in rural areas

iv.Provision of storage and processing facilities to rural farmers

v.Establishment of dams to facilitate irrigation agriculture in rural areas


7.Poor marketing system

i.There are no organized marketing channels for farm produce

ii.There is lack of proper pricing for agricultural produce

iii.The negative activities of middlemen house in the marketing of agricultural


iv.Poor marketing of produce discourages more production be local farmers

v.Obscene of commodity boards to aid the purchase of farm produce

vi.There is also the problem of fluctuation in the price of agricultural produce

vii.Inadequate good roads and storage facilities



i.Government should by excess produce from farmers

ii.Government should stabilize process of farm produce in the country

iii.The activities of middle men who buy produce at cheaper rates and sell at higher

prices should be checked

iv.Commodity boards should be reestablished to help organize the marketing of

agriculture produce


8.Inadequate agricultural education and extension

i.Major of the farmers are illiterate, that is they commit read & write

ii.They do not know how to apply modern farm inputs like fertilizers and chemicals

iii.The find it difficult to accept new innovation in agriculture which will boast their

efficiency and productivity

iv.Extension officers are very few or in adequate

v.Local farmers are very un-co-operative hostile and unaccommodating to

extension officers

vi.Local farmers are not always willing to learn and accept modern methods of




i.Mass literacy programmed should be embarked upon by the government e.g.

nomadic education

ii.Rural farmers should be trained on modern systems of farming

iii.Adequate and qualified extension officers should be employed to teach peasant

farmers, new innovations and techniques in agriculture


9.Problem of pests and diseases

i.Pests and diseases reduce the yield of agricultural produce

ii.They also reduce the quality of the produce

iii.Pasts and diseases also reduce the income of the farmers

iv.Farmers are discouraged from production



i.Insecticides and other chemicals used is the control of pests and disease should

be supplied at subsidized rates

ii.Pests and diseases control units or department should be established to control

pests& diseases

iii.Farmers should be trained on easy identification prevention and control of pests

& diseases


10.Unpredictable climate

i.Unpredictable climate generally discourages serious farming activities

ii.Low rainfall leads to poor harvest of crops

iii.Low sunshine intensity reduces the rates of photosynthesis which eventually

leads to low yield

iv.High or too low temperature does not permit the normal growth of crops



i.Irrigation practices which is the artificial supply of water to farmland should be

adopted in areas of low rainfall

ii.Water conservation techniques such as mulching should be practiced

iii.Planting of cover crops like centrosome supply, calopogonium supply should be

practiced as it helps to conserve and prevent evaporation of water from the soil

iv.Teaching peasant farmers new innovations in agriculture


11.Inadequate tools one machinery

i.Farm fools and machinery like ploughs harrows, tractors, planters etc. are

grossly inadequate

ii.Use of simple farm tools like cutlass and hoe leads to low agricultural production

or output per unit time is low

iii.Farm tools and implements are expressive to purchase and mention

iv.Most of the implements are not produced in west Africa rather they are imputed

v.Inadequate personnel to repair damaged machinery

vi.Most local farmers are so poor that they cannot afford to buy farm tools and


vii.Farmers lack the stalled man power in the maintenance, repair and operation of

sophisticated farm machines

viii.Working with poor tools and implements is very tedious and labour intensive

ix.Only small areas of land are cultivated

x.It is time consuming

xi.The use of poor tools discourage people from going into agriculture

xii.It causes faster ageing in the farming population



i.Local fabrication of farm machinery and equipment should be encouraged by

government to make form implements suitable to local conditions and be made available to farmers

ii.Introduction and utilization of modern farm machines and implements

iii.Establishment of tractor-hiring units to make the machines readily available to

poor farmers who cannot afford to purchase the expensive farm machines

iv.Training of skilled man power in the maintenance, repair & operation of

sophisticated farm machines

v.Provision of subsidies to enable farmers purchase modern equipment and tools

vi.Provision of loans or credit facilities to farmers

vii.Farmers should form co-operative societies to enable them to pool their

resources together and purchase farm implements and machines

viii.There should be importation of appropriate machines and implements


12.Inconsistent government policy on agriculture

i.Inconsistent government policies on agriculture reduce agricultural development

ii.These policies foul to recognize the peasant farmers that produce food for the


iii.Most of the agricultural programmers are centered on fake city farmers who

only collect money and use them for other purposes

iv.Most of the farmers do not have access to farm inputs provide through such


v.Bad implementation of these policies reduce agricultural development



i.Dynamic agriculture policies should be formulated and implemented

ii.The policies should recourse the true and genuine farmers

iii.Government should formulate policies that would allow private participations in


iv.All policies on agriculture should be properly implemented


13.Environmental degradation

i.Flooding can lead to the distinction of crops and livestock

ii.Soil erosion can reduce the soil infertile

iii.Soil erosion can wash away crops and animals

iv.Swampy or waterlogged areas will not allow agricultural activities to take place

v.Pollution of environment can create health hazards to man and animal

vi.Deforestation reduces rainfall, forest trees, land protection, and causes erosion



i.Flooding should be avoided

ii.Soil erosion should be properly checked

iii.Cover cropping should be practiced

iv.Terracing and strip cropping should also be practiced

v.Pollution and deforestation should be avoided


14.Rural urban migration

i.It leads to scarcity of laborers resulting to high labour cost

ii.High cost of labour therefore leads to high cost of production

iii.It leads to decreased animal production

iv.It leads to decrease in export and hence GDP (Gross Domestic Product)

v.It leads to poor adoption of agricultural innovations



i.Provision of social amenities in rural areas

ii.Provision of employment in rural areas

iii.Training of people on modern farming practices

iv.Provision of incentives to farmers in rural areas

v.Provision of favorable prices for farm produce by the government

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1.Enumerate ten problems of Agricultural developments in West Africa

2.State five solution to problem of inadequate credit facilities

3.State five solutions to the problem of inadequate storage and processing facilities

4.Enumerate two solutions to the problem of land tenure



Government plays an important roles in the development of agriculture in Nigeria. This has help to solve the numerous problems which resulted in the poor development of agriculture. The roles of government in agricultural development. Invade


1.Provision of financial assistance: The federal government through its various agents or agencies has helped in the provision of financial assistance to farmer in the form of loans credit and subside to farmer in the form of loans credit and subside agents like Nigeria’s agricultural and co-operative bank [N.A.C.B] agricultural credit guarantee scheme [A.C.G.S] were establish to give loans to farmers. The government also direct commercial banks to give loans to farmers in other to boost their production. Government can rendered financial assistance to farmers either in the forms of loans, credit or by subsidies are non-refund able aids granted to farmers. In other words, subsidy are aids given to farmers in cash or in kind without the intension of paying bank examples of agricultural subsidy are reduction in price of input such as fertilizers improvised seed, chemicals etc.


2.Establishment of agricultural programmer: The government decide to

Established agricultural program which the aim of boosting greater

Production of crops and livestock. Such programmer include:

1.Agricultural loan schemes

2.River basin development authority

3.National agricultural insurance scheme

4.Green revolution

5.Operation feed the nation

6.National agricultural land development agency

7.Agricultural Development Project [ADP]

8.Directorate of food, road, and rural in fracture

9.National accelerated industrial production programme

10.National accelerated food production programme

11.Agro service center

12.Form settlement scheme

13.Co-operative farming


Major objective of the agricultural programme

a.Agricultural loan scheme

i.To provide find for financing agricultural project

ii.To provide soft loans to farmers

b.River basin development authority


This program was setup by the federal government between 1979-1983

i.To provide irrigation facilities through construction of dams for all year

Round agricultural production

ii.To provide water to the rural community for increase in agriculturalproduction

iii.It helps to bring more land under cultivation by increases the farm size of a

Small scale farmers though the provision of land clearing service e.g. tractor

hiring minimum cost

iv.To increase the total the output famer with increase not revenue returns

v.Construction of feeder roads to project size for good transportation

vi.To improve rural infrastructure generally thus for reducing migration

vii.Construction of fish ponds thereby enhancing the distribution of fingerlings

to fish farmer

3.National agricultural insurance scheme

i.To provide security against risks, uncertainties and hazards in agriculture

For farmers


4.Green revolution

The green revolution was setup between 1989-1983 by the federal


i.To encourage large scale farming

ii.To establish river basin authority to boost the supply of water for irrigation purpose

iii.To produce abundant food crops for local consumption

iv.To produce cash crop for export purpose


5.Operation feed the nation

The operation feed the nation (OFN) was set up by general Olusegun

Obasanjo military regime between 1976 and 1979 the aims of the programme were:

I.T increase food production

II.To popularize agriculture

III.To provide food foray Nigerians

IV.To facilitate agricultural development on all parts of Nigeria


6.National agricultural land development agency

This programme was meant to prepare and provide land for agriculture


7.Agricultural development project (ADP)

The programme started in 1975. It was financed by World Bank, federal

And state government

i.To boost agricultural production through the construction of farm service

For efficient distribution of agricultural input

ii.To construct rural in frustrations, such as feeder roads and earth dams

iii.To increase the level of extension contact with farmers

iv.To bring agricultural service closer to the people in rural areas

v.To source and make available farm input to farming e.g. improved seeds,

Fertilizers, chemicals etc.

vi.To help in the reclamation of degraded agricultural land


8.Doctorate of foods, roads and rural infrastructure

This programme was established in 1986 by the federal government

I.To provide rural infrastructure that will facilitate food production

II.To develop small scale agro-based industries

III.To provide electricity to the rural duelers

IV.To provide rural infrastructure that would facilitate food processing

V.To provide rural infrastructure that would improve of life to rural duelers

VI.National accelerated food production programme this was established to

Educate farmers or methods for increasing productivity in their land


National accelerated food production programmes

It increases the production of crops that will serve as agro based industries e.g. oil palm, cocoa, rubber, cashew


Agro service center: agro service centers are

vTo supply drugs and vaccine for farmers

vTo provide expert service to farmers

vTo provide farm input like seeds, fertilizers etc. produced at reduced rate

vTo supply farm spare Paris for agricultural machines and implements


Farm settlement scheme

vThe farm settlement was established in 1959 by then we stem region

Government of Nigeria

vTo stimulate small rural farmers to increase their productivity and improve

Their standard of living

vTo develop a modern farming system in order to attract the young and

Educated people into farming

vTo induce rural development thereby halting the difi to urban areas

vTo evaluate unemployment or provide job for the teaching population

vTo check land termer system

vTo bring about changes in agricultural methods and teach about modern

Farming practices to youth


Co-operative farming

Co-operative farming is a kind of farming initiated by government in which a group of farmers come together for farming purpose.

Co-operative farming play numerous roles


Agriculture nongovernmental organization (NGO)

Meaning and characteristics of agricultural nongovernment organization

I.They are established by private agencies or co-operate bodes conceded

With the development of agriculture all are the word

II.They are not owned or contorted by the government

III.They are privately funded

IV.Their activities cot across many countries with specific aims to developing

Improved species of crops and livestock bread

V.They are non-profit mating

VI.They do not pay corporate taxes


Examples of nongovernmental organization involved

In improving agricultural production are:

1.International institute for tropical agriculture (IITA)

2.West African rice development agency (WARDA)

3.International livestock center of Africa (ILCA)

4.International crop research institute or semi aid tropics (ICRISAT)

5.Food and agricultural organization (FAO)

6.Farmers’ co-operatives

7.World vision international (in Chana)

8.Hunger project (in Ghana)

9.Adventist relief agency (both in Ghana and Gambia)

10.Catholic relief services (in Ghana)

11.International find for agricultural development (IFAD)

12.International livestock research institute (ILRI)


Agricultural governmental organization

1.Agricultural loan scheme

2.River basin development authority

3.National agricultural insurance scheme

4.Agricultural development project

5.National agricultural land development agency

6.Any national agricultural research institute

7.Agricultural development bank


Ways Agricultural NGOS contribute to agriculture in West Africa

1.They assist in rural development by diving social annuities

2.They can carry out research to improve or develop new crop varieties

3.They can carry out research to improve or develop breeds of animals

4.Provisions of financial support or funding for agricultural extension project

5.Improvement of farmers airiness and agricultural tenor ledge


1.State two major role of government in agricultural development

2.What is subsidy

3.State five programmes established by previous government

4.What are the objectives of Operation Feed the Nation (OFN)





Science and technology has played an important role in the development of agriculture in many countries these roles are

1.Implements and machinery: science and technology has aided the development

of implements and machineries like tractors, planters, riders, plough etc. which have replaced the old tools, cutlass, hoe shovel etc.

2.Pest and disease control: Through the aid of science and technology chemical

like inspected fungicide, avoids, fumigants, negate a des etc. have been developed to combat the problems caused by pests and diseases agents that can cause diseases such as viruses, bacteria

3.Animal and plant breeding: venous breeds of animals and varieties of

Plants have been developed through the application genetic and breeding. As a result of these; plants and animals now exhibit early maturity, high yield, resistance to pests and diseases and other truants required by farmers

4.Animal nutrition: Animal nutrition has also been developed feeds are now

Formulated to meet the nutritional demand of animal

5.Transport network: The trans port network has also been developed

Through the constrictor of roads, railways, ships, water ways, airways etc. which aid the movement of food from rural to urban centers and for speedily delivery purposes

6.Processing machines: science and technology has also helped to develop

Special like incubators, milking machines, grinders, miners, etc. which make the processing of food easy and possible within a short possible time

7.Weather and climate: science and technology has equally help the farmer to

understand weather and urinate of their areas and by so doing has helped them to determine the type of crop to grow and the kind of animal to rear in that particular area or locality

8.Development of fertilizer: The fertilizer development and application of

fertilizers have helped to increase crop yields. Through the help of science and technology farmers have been able to know and determine soil fertility level before plating. They are able to determine nutrient deficiencies, organize matter content, water holding capacity etc. and the type of crop that can do well on that particular soil

9.Farm building and structure: technology has helped the farmer in designing and

construction farm houses, farm structures like poetry houses, pig pens, cattle’s pens etc. for livestock animal. Farm storage structure like barns, soils, are equally built

10.Development of irrigation practices: science technology has also helped to

develop irrigation practices in which water is applied to the soil artificially especially during the dry seasons

11.Provision of storage facilities: science and technology has also helped to

develop storage facilities for the preservation of harvested products, e.g. silos

12.Development of farm management system: improved farm management

system have also been developed with the aid of science and technology, e.g. crop rotation, mixed farming etc.


1.State five roles of science and technology in Agricultural development

2.State two scientific products.



As a result of the problem of inadequateness of the land tenure system the federal government of Nigeria, in 1978 during the reign of General Olusegun Obasanjo, promulgated a decree on land use in Nigeria. This decree was known as land use decree of 1978 or land use act of 1978.


Features of the land use act (Decree)

i.The land use act (Decree) was promulgated by the federal Military Government

of Nigeria on March 29, 1978

ii.It takes care of the inadequateness inherent in land owner ship in Nigeria

iii.The decree states that all land in the country is wasted in the federal

government to be held in trust for the people that is acquisition of land and its uses for whatever purpose are to be controlled by the federal government

iv.The decree empowers each state to act on behalf of the federal government in


v.It also states that before anyone could be legally recognized as owning any

pieces of land, he most have applied to the government paid for the land, and thereafter be issued with a certificate of occupancy (COFO) on the acquired

vi.Every Nigeria is qualified to acquire land for use once they have attained the age

of 21years

vii.It is a reform essentially aimed at encouraging proper productive and efficient

use of land

viii.The decree stipulates that individuals can only use a piece of land for 99 years

after which the land reverts to the government

ix.It also provide that farmers they should not be allocated more than 500 hectares

of land for crop production or 5,000 hectares for grazing purposes.


Aims of the land use decree

1.It encourages proper productive and efficient use of the land

2.It allocates land and create opportunities for enterprising farmers to acquire

more land for large scale farming

3.It facilitates planning or formation of programmes for a land use

4.It streamlines and simplifies the management and ownership of land in the


5.It removes the unpleasant controversies which had lither 10 general in Nigeria.

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Implications of the land use act

The land use act of 1978 has some implications among human are:

i.With the decree; individual ownership of land whether developed or

underdeveloped, now ceases, and the only relationship between and individual and the of that of use

ii.It also ensure that whoever requires land for any purpose and has the ability to

make option use or it will always abstain it. This ensure enough land for agriculture and industries

iii.The decree does not dispossess any Nigeria of his acquired property which is

being law Polly and optimally used the decree is out to prevent the practice whereby land speculators buy up a large plots of land, especially in developed urban locations with absolutely no intentions of immediate or future use, but Marely to tie it down in order to obtain high prices for it in the event of its acquisition by government or other persons

iv.It allows any individuals above the age of 21years to apply for certificate of

occupancy/land ownership


Advantages of land use decree

1.It has made land acquisition relatively easier for new enterers into agriculture

2.It has reduced the number and frequency of court cases own land ownership

3.It has facilitated borrowing of capital for further investment in agriculture

4.Availability of and provision of large land holding which encourages large scale


5.It presents fragmentation of land since land acquired under the decree cannot

be shared into bits

6.Reduction in boundary dispels since survey of acquired land is man datary for

occupancy right to be granted


Disadvantages of land use decree

1.It leads to escalation in the cost of land survey

2.Land acquisition process has become bureau critic and often meets with


3.It has impoverished communities whose main assists were their lands

4.It has encouraged dishonesty through illegal sale and back dating of ownership

or title deeds after 1978

5.Land is not necessarily allocated to every potential agricultural developer

6.Land may be acquired by in lateral people for nonagricultural

Before the land use decree, customary laws, governed the rigid of individuals on land, regulating alienation of land in heritance and succession, free gold and leasehold and co-ownership of land


Reasons why government should enforce the land use legislators

i.Security of tenure: to safeguard farmers against unreasonable eviction

ii.Insuring proper land use: to ensure that agricultural land is not unnecessarily

diverted to non-agricultural purpose

iii.Land improvement to carry out large scale improvement such as irrigation

derange and soil water in order to ensure a reasonable standard of efficient production for a long time and such a requirement should be obligatory irrespective land server system

iv.Government project to make large tracts of land available for government

sponsored development of large scale farms and resettlement schemes

v.Freedom of enterprise: to encourage freedom of farming in cases where there

are regulations or tradition views that milady against such freedom

vi.Land litigation: to reduce the number of land litigation among the citizens


Influence of size of holdings: to parent land fragmentation and encourage the consolidation of small holding into large units

Control of production to encourage the production of certain produce to curtail the production of others through the control of land use.



1.State the Land use Act of 1976

2.What are the features of the land use act

3.State five aim of land use act



Land definition: land may be defined as the uppermost layer of the earth’s crust on which agricultural and non-agricultural activities are carried out. In other word, land can also be defined as the solid part of the earth’s surface which has as its components water, air, soil, rock, mineral, natural vegetation and animal life and suitable for agricultural production.

Land is a factor of agricultural production land is immobile and limited in supply. It is a free gift nature.



Land use demands careful planning in order to ensure increased agricultural production. In order to use land most efficiently, there is the need to ensure a continuous land use policy which must not change as government changes. Current demands on land canters on agriculture, forestry, wild life conservation, industry, housing recreation, transport etc. however it is agriculture, forestry and wild life that make the greatest demands for land.


Classification of land based on uses

There are two major classification of land based on uses. These are:

(a)Agricultural land: agricultural land include

i.Land for crop production

ii.Livestock production



Note: Crop production, livestock production and fisheries can be grouped as farming or agriculture purpose


v.Wildlife conservation


(b)Non-Agricultural land: The following are non-agricultural uses of land for:

i.Industrial or factory use

ii.Industrial of building (Residential purposes)


iv.Sports canters e.g. stadia, race course, golf course

v.Recreational purpose e.g. parks


vii.Worship place e.g. churches, mosques, shrine

viii.Transportation e.g. railway, airports, roads etc.

ix.Commercial purpose e.g. banks, warehouse etc.


Use of land for agricultural purposes

1.Production of crops: Land is used for the production of food crops like yam, rice, maize, cassava, cowpea, etc. as well as production of cash crop like cotton, rubber, cocoa, groundnut etc.

Importance or merits of crops: (i) Provision of food e.g. maize, yam, cassava, etc. (ii) It provide employment to many people (iii) It provides income to farmers (iv) It provides raw materials for industries e.g. cassava, maize, rubber, cocoa, etc. (v) Some crops are sources of foreign exchange for the nation.

2.Livestock production: Land is also used for natural grazing for livestock like cattle, sheep and goats. Large areas of land are set aside in savanna belts where there are abundant grasses for grazing by livestock.


Importance or merits of livestock: (i) Livestock provides food in from of protein e.g. meat and eggs (ii) It provides employment e.g. cattle rearers, poultry farmers etc. (iii) It provides feed for farm animal (iv) It also provides hides and skin for making musical drums, belts, shoes etc. (v) It can provide foreign exchange for the nation when livestock or its products are exported.


How agricultural land appreciate in value

Farmland may appreciate in value through the following ways:

(i)Fertilization, minoring and living

(ii)Through reclamation and drainage

(iii)Through fallowing

(iv)Proper cultivation methods e.g. crop rotation

(v)Proper erosion control


(vii)Through rotational grazing


3.Forestry: Land is used for forestry which involves the management of the forest and its resources for man’s use. Forest reserves are established where there is low pressure for cultivation or low population density and also where the land seems not to be suitable for agriculture.

Some forests are specially kept by government for specific purpose. Hence, they are called forest reserves


Some forest reserves In Nigeria are

(i)Mamu River forest reserve in Anambra state

(ii)Omo forest reserve in Ogun state

(iii)Afi river forest reserve in Cross-River state

(iv)Okomu forest reserve in Edo state

(v)Anara forest reserve in Kaduna state

(vi)Shasha River forest reserve in Ogun state

(vii)Sakpoba forest reserve in Edo state

(viii)Zamfara forest reserve in Zamfara state

(ix)Sanga river forest reserve in Plateau state

(x)Awaba hills forest reserve in Oyo satet


Importance or merits of forest: (i) Provision of food e.g. fruit, bush meat, etc. (ii) Provision of fuel e.g. fire wood (iii) provision of medicinal herbs (iv) Provision of employment e.g. forest guards (v) Formation of rain (vi) Prevention of soil erosion (vii) Forest is the home of wild animals (viii) Forest serves as tourist centres (ix) Provision of foreign exchange for the nation (x) Provision of timber for furniture (xi) Provision of pulp used for tissue and paper making (xii) Forest beautifies the environment (xiii) Forest reduces atmospheric pollution by removing carbon dioxide and replacing it with oxygen.


4.Wildlife conservation: Land is also used for wildlife conservation. Wildlife refers to animals and birds found in the bush. Wildlife is conserved in game reserves which are ceters of tourist attraction. Land which is not suitable for agricultural and forestry may be used for game reserve, located in sparsely populated areas.


Game reserves are places where wild animals are conserved to avoid extinction while they are carefully and wisely exploited.


Poaching or the indiscriminate killing of animals in a game reserve should be prohibited. Also forest fires, fishing with chemicals should be avoided


Examples of game reserve in Nigeria are:

i.Yankari game reserve in Bauchi state

ii.Kainji national park in Kogi state

iii.Zugurman game reserve in Niger state

iv.Borgu game reserve in Kwara state


Some animals conserved in game reserves include: elephants, tigers, lions, zebras, giraffes, monkeys, snakes, leopards, birds, turtles etc.

Importance or merits of wildlife/game reserves:

(i)Wildlife is hunted to provide meat for good

(ii)Game reserves are centres of tourism

(iii)Game reserve provide employment to many people

(iv)Game reserves also generate income for the government

(v)Hides and skin from wildlife like zebra, giraffe and tiger are useful for domestic


(vi)Prevention of wildlife from extinction

(vii)Promotion of education and research works on wildlife

(viii)Encouragement of micro-climate of a locality with respect to rainfall


5.Fishery: some portion of land is set aside for the production of fish through fish

farming. It involves the establishment of fish ponds where fishes are reared artificially to provide the necessary sources of protein and income for the people


Importance or merits of fish farming: (i) It provides fish which serves as a source of food (i.e. protein) to man and livestock (ii) It provides a means of increasing the availability of protein to people at a reduced cost (iii) It provides a means of recycling wastes e.g. animal dungs from farms, factories and sewage-disposal system (iv) Fish can be processed into fish by-provides such as fish meal, fish oil and skin (v) It provides employment and income to many people (vi) A better use of land and water in our environment is also ensured through fish farming.



Used of land for non-agricultural purposes

6.Residential purposes (e.g. Housing): This involves the use of land for the

construction of residential houses and buildings. It also involves the development towns, housing estates and all other forms of settlements. In urban areas, a large proportion of land is needed for the construction of residential buildings


7.Transportation: Land is also used for construction of many forms of roads, railway line as well as airports. Transportation by road alone constitutes one of the use of land , especially in urban areas


8.Mining: land where minerals are found are used for mining. In Nigeria, most of the land where petroleum, coal, tin and other minerals are located are used mainly for mining purposes


9.Industrial purpose: Industries are also located on land. Majority of the industries are located in industrial estates which constitute a large proportion of urban land


Other non-agricultural use of land include

10.Sport centre e.g. stadia, race course, golf course etc.

11.Educational purpose e.g. schools


13.Worship places e.g. churches, mosques, shines etc.


15.Commercial purposes e.g. banks warehouses etc.

Factors affecting land availability and uses

Many factors affect land availability and uses in Nigeria. These factors directly or indirectly determine whether land will be available for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. These factors include: (i) Ecological factors (ii) Population density/population growth (iii) rate of growth of the population (iv) Climatic conditions (v) Topography or slope of the land (vi) Socio-cultural factors (vii) Economic factors (viii) Prevalent land tenure system (ix) Fertility status of the land/soil type (x) Degree of land degradation e.g. pollution, erosion etc.


1.State five factors affecting land availability

2.State five use of land for Agriculture

3.Enumerate five non-use of land for Agriculture

Hope you got what you visited this page for? The above is the lesson note for Agric for SS1 class. However, you can download the free PDF file for record purposes.

If you have any questions as regards Agric lesson note For SS1 class, kindly send them to us via the comment section below and we shall respond accordingly as usual.


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